Presentation on theme: "5th Grade Investigation and Experimentation Skills"— Presentation transcript:
15th Grade Investigation and Experimentation Skills
2VariablesVariablesSomething in the experiment that will change. Vari means to change.In an experiment, the scientist deals with 3 types of variables.1) Independent variable2) Dependent variable3) Controlled variablesTo make an investigation scientific you must have an independent variable, a dependent variable, and controlled variables
3Independent Variables The variable that is purposefully changed (scientist will change it)Can have only ONE in an investigationExamples: amount of water, time, mass, temperature, amount of sunlight
4Dependent Variable Dependent Variable The variable that changes in response to the independent variable (usually measured or recorded in an investigation)Examples: time it takes to evaporate, bounce height of the ball, distance traveled, change in plant height
5Controlled variables Controlled variables Things that are kept the same throughout the entire investigationExamples: same location, same temperature, same conditions
6Maria grew four plants in an experiment about plant growth Maria grew four plants in an experiment about plant growth. The table below shows the design and results of Maria’s experiment.You can see that Maria has 4 plants. She is watering all plants the same, and all the plants are receiving the same amount of plant food every day. These are called the CONTROLLED variables.Each plant receives a different amount of sunlight each day. This is the INDEPENDENT variable because it is the variable that is being changed.Maria is measuring the height of the plant at the end of the experiment. This is the DEPENDENT variable because it is the variable being measured.
7Review Question # 1Carlos put identical daisies on the windowsill next to each other. They both received 200 mL. of water daily. One plant received 10 mL. of fertilizer every day and the other did not.What is the independent variable in Carlos’ experiment?A the growth of the flowerB the amount of waterC the addition of fertilizerD the amount of sunlight
8Answer Question # 1C The independent variable is the variable that is being changed in the experiment. In Carlos’ experiment, only one plant is receiving the fertilizer, so the addition of fertilizer is the independent variable. The growth of the flower is being measured and is the dependent variable. The amount of water, amount of sunlight, and type of plant are all the same and are all controlled variables.
9Steps of the Scientific Investigation Five Steps to the Scientific InvestigationScientists follow the steps of the scientific investigation during an experimentFive Steps:Problem QuestionHypothesisProcedure/ExperimentResults/Analysis of the DataConclusion
10Problem QuestionProblem Question – what we are trying to find out/ researchMust include the independent variable and dependent variableExample: How does the amount of sunlight affect the growth of the plant?In this example, amount of sunlight is the independent variable and growth of the plant is the dependent variable.
11Review Question # 2Which of the following questions is testable in a scientific investigation?A Are dogs better pets than cats?B Are dogs happy when they are walked?C Are cats more active at night than during the day?D Are cats easier to take care of than dogs?
12Answer Question # 2C A testable question is one that you can actually collect data for. Choices A, B and D are all opinions. How would you test that the animal is better, happier, or easier to take care of? However, you could test to see if cats are more active than dogs at night by observing both animals during the night and collecting data for what you observe.
13Hypothesis Form a Hypothesis Hypothesis: an educated guess that is tested over and over again.Gives a solution to the problem questionTells why your solution will workExample: If the amount of sunlight increases, then the height of the plant will increase because I know that my plant at home always grows more when it is in the sun a lot.
14Procedure/Experiment Contains all information to perform the experiment: independent variable, dependent variable, controlled variables, materials, and suppliesThe procedure might include diagrams, drawings of the experiment set-up, and steps listed with numbers.
15Results/Analysis of the Data Results are presented in charts, data tables and graphsResults include data that is your opinion, like color change or odor.It also includes data that is measured (time, measurement of distance, mass, temperature, and height)Must include all data from the experiment
16ConclusionInterpret the data – was your hypothesis supported by the data?List any sources of errorList any changes you would make the next time you conduct the experiment
17Review Question # 3During the experiment, Carlos wrote on his lab sheet, “I think the plant getting the fertilizer will grow more because my plants at home always grow more when I put fertilizer in them.”This statement is an example of:A a conclusionB resultsC an observationD a hypothesis
18Answer Question # 3D A hypothesis is a guess that is tested. Carlos is stating what he thinks will happen and why. He is not stating a conclusion, what he learned. He is also not stating results, the data he collected during the experiment. Carlos is also not stating an observation, what he saw during the experiment.
19Review Question # 4 Five Steps in an Investigation: a) Procedure/Experimentb) Hypothesisc) Problem Questiond) Conclusione) Results/Analysis of the DataGeorge is going to conduct a scientific investigation. In what order should George follow the steps listed above?A b d e a cB c b a e dC a b c d eD c a d b e
20Answer Question # 4B The five steps of the scientific method in order are:Problem QuestionHypothesisProcedure/ExperimentResults/Analysis of the DataConclusion
21Review Question # 5The table shows the time it took to freeze plain water and water with different amounts of salt. According to the table:A water with more salt takes longer to freezeB freezing rates are the same in plain and salt waterC plain water takes longer to freezeD both the water with 5 g salt, and the water with 10 g of salt, froze at the same rate
22Answer Question # 5A As more salt is added to the water, it takes longer to freeze. This is why salt is put on icy roads. The outside temperature has to be extremely low for the road to freeze because the salt lowers the freezing point of the water on the road.
23Review Question # 6The graph shows how many individuals were found in a beetle colony. How many more beetles than mealworms were found in this colony? A 5 B 8 C 14 D 32
24Answer Question # 6B According to the graph, there are 20 beetles and 12 mealworms. Therefore, there are 8 more beetles (20-12=8)
25Review Question # 7A scientist was studying a mammal population. The data table shows some of her results.Which pie chart represents the information in the table?
26Answer Question # 7C Out of 205 individuals in the population, about half of them, 104, are juveniles. The pie chart should show the juvenile part of the chart being half, and males being slightly less than females.
27Review Question # 8Elaine wants to measure the volume of a large pitcher of lemonade. Which units should Elaine use?A litersB gramsC metersD degrees
28Answer Question # 8A The volume of liquids is measured in units like liters, milliliters, quarts, and pints.