Presentation on theme: "Metaphor Creative Teaching Framework Using the Science of Learning to"— Presentation transcript:
1 Metaphor Creative Teaching Framework Using the Science of Learning to Maximize Teaching & LearningOpportunitiesCreativeTeachingFramework
2 Workshop ObjectivesIdentify the impact of quality teaching on student learningIdentify the science and art of effective teachingAnalyse 10 core principles of learningUtilize a range of resources (including information technologies) to construct creative learning designs and teaching strategiesUse the Creative Teaching Framework to teach effectively within your personal style
3 Teaching Quality – the big factor in Student Learning “…nothing is as important to learning as the quality of a student’s teacher. The difference between a good teacher and a bad teacher is so great that fifth-grade students who have poor teachers in grades three to five score roughly 50 percentile points below similar groups of students who are fortunate enough to have effective teachers”(Izumi, T. L. & Evers, W. M., Teacher Quality, ix)“The effect of the teacher far overshadows classroom variables, such as previous achievement level of students, class size…heterogeneity of students, and the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the classroom.”(Rivers, C. J. & Sanders, W. L., Teacher Quality and Equityin Educational Opportunity, p.17)
4 What’s Worthwhile about Quality Teaching Turns many students on to learningMakes the job more productive and fun“Against boredom even the gods themselvesstruggle in vain”Friedrich Nietzsche
5 Big QuestionsWhat are the specific things that teachers do that lead students to perceive them as Effective & Interesting?How do they do they create Experiences that gets these results?
6 My Personal ViewMaking the simple complicated is commonplace; making thecomplicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity.Charles Mingus
7 In Awesomely Simple Terms (he says hopefully) A problemsolved byR - R - Swhich takesSHAPE
8 The Problem: Descent into the World of Bla 10080604020ATENIOBlaBlaBla(%age)SESSION TIME (minutes)
9 Just what you fancy after lunch at 2pm Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows:The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directlyproportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same directionas the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the objectThen follow this with 40 mins of exposition and equations
11 The brain and motivation (why many students are not well motivated) Cloniger 1987 argued that 3 neural systems run our livesThe Cortex’s quest for Novelty2. The Mid-Brains quest for Pleasure3. The Lower-Brains desire to avoid Pain
12 It’s in ‘The Experience’ Much of classroom learning is not novel or pleasurable. Some may even be painfulSo, how might teachers create Experiences which:Add novelty and/or pleasure to learningTake away some of the ‘pain’ of learning
13 Re-defining the World of Bla 10080604020ATENIO(%age)SESSION TIME (minutes)
15 The Serial Position Curve 80706050403020Primacy EffectRecency EffectProportion Correctvon Restorff EffectPosition on List
16 Psychological Effects Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily)Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently presented items or experiences to be remembered best)Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember distinct or novel items and experiences)
17 Model of Human Memory Long – Term Memory E N V I R O Working M Memory SightHearingTouchSmellTasteWorkingMemory5-9 bits ofinformationLong –TermMemoryForgettingInfinite CapacityEffective transfer from Working Memory to Long –Term Memory is crucial.This requires information to be well organised, meaningful and sufficiently rehearsed
18 Physiology of learning Learning results in connections between neuronsAs we learn neurons connect with each other and pass on information. At the physiological level, learning results from the development of connected groups of neurons. As learning is reinforced, myelin is produced which enhances long term memory.
19 Learning is part of an Holistic System To learn is not the special province of a single specializedrealm of human functioning such as cognition or perception.It involves the integrated functioning of the total organism– thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving.(Kolb, 1995, p.148)In basic terms, we learn better when we perceive the learningas useful (e.g., satisfy some important need), believe we canbe successful at it and enjoy it
20 Meeting Human Needs Survive and Reproduce Belong – Love, Share and CooperatePower – Control and CompetitionFreedom – Autonomy and ChoiceFun – Humour and Laughter(From the writings of William Glasser)
21 Psychological StatesAt the psychological level our state is how we think, feel and perceive at any given moment.“The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not basedon your ability, but on the state of your mind…”Anthony Robbins, 2001As teachers we can certainly influence the ‘here and now experience’ and, if we do that well, we can promote better psychological states
22 “Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz I’m laying them” Magic Eggs - Story“Mum, Mum, you don’t have to buy eggs anymore coz I’m laying them”“We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions, usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though they were concrete realities”(Adler, H., 1996)
23 which creates a perception that… Cognitive DissonanceNew experience,which creates a perception that…I’m laying eggsExistingBeliefsCognitive DissonanceChickens lay eggsI am not a chicken
24 which creates a perception that… Cognitive DissonanceNew experience,which creates a perception that…I can do thisExistingBeliefsCognitive DissonanceI can’t do thisI am not smart
25 “If you don’t get the result you want, do something different” ReframingReframing refers to putting things in different contexts(frames or reference), thus giving them different meanings.Reframing is the essence of creative thinking.“If you don’t get the result you want, do something different”(Adler, 1996)
26 Example of System Behaviour 1. Meet Core Needs(Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – Glasser, 1988)ConstructingProductiveSubjectiveExperienceParticipation& LearningBuy into the experience3. Reframing2. Positive PsychologicalStateRapport Building
27 Towards a Science of Learning There is increasing recognition of a substantive and validatedresearch base that is beginning to constitute a ‘science of learning’.For example, Marzano (1992) argued that:“…over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough research and theory about learning to derive a truly research based-model of instruction” (p.2)More recently, Darling-Hammond & Bransford (2006), from surveyingthe research findings, concluded that:There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching, and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supports that work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine (p.12)
28 Core Principles of Learning Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly communicatedLearners’ prior knowledge is activated and connected to new learningMotivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated into learning designsContent is organized around key concepts and principles that are fundamental to understanding the key structure of a subjectSelf-directed learning is encouraged through facilitating the development of good thinking
29 Core Principles of Learning [cont’d] 6. Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage the range of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic)Learning design takes into account the working of memory systemsLearner competence is promoted through active and experiential learningA psychological climate is created which is positive, success orientated and promotes self-esteemAssessment practices are integrated into the learning design to promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality feedback
30 Core Principles - A Synergetic System While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to effectivepedagogy, they are not discrete or separate in that they should beconsidered independently of each other. In fact, they are mutuallysupporting, interdependent and potentially highly synergetic.As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight:Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individualfeatures thrown together by the teacher. It works more like amachine, with the parts operating together and reinforcingone another, driving the vehicle forward. (p.75)
31 Using Core Principles Thoughtfully in the Situated Context of learning The core principles of learning must always be used thoughtfullyin relation to the following situated factors:The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual understanding,competence, etc)Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior competence, learnerpreferences, etc)Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning environment, facilities,resources, etc)It’s a bit like driving – good drivers are able to adjust situationally to different and changing driving conditions
32 Teaching as Art?…no science of teaching exists, or can exist, that will be so prescriptiveas to make teaching routine. The best that we can hope for – and it issubstantial – is to have better tools from science with which teacherscan use their heads.(Eisner, 1995, p.96)
33 What is Creativity? A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand. (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)<>One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw twosmall green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He was curiousso he stopped and saw the ‘lights’ were a pair of cats eyes reflecting the light fromhis head lights.Percy got back in the car full of ideas and subsequently invented a small deviceinvolving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then beset in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic.After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)
34 Components of Highly Effective Human Performance What is it that topsalespeople have?What is it that topcomedians have?What is it that successfulcommunicators with theopposite sex have?
35 R – R - S What are the Results, Resources and Results are the outcomes we want in any situation (e.g., sell more cars, make the audience laugh, get attractive dates)Resources are the things we can bring into play in order to get our desired resultsStrategies are the orchestrated use of our resources to get the results we desireWhat are the Results, Resources andStrategies of Creative Teachers?
36 Creative Teaching How technical am I? Do you know Java script well? Creative teaching occurs when a teacher combines existing knowledge in some novel form to get useful results in terms of facilitating student learning. This may be either planned before the act of teaching, or invented as a response to the demands of the learning situationHow technical am I?Do you know Java script well?Yes, I do, I once had a girlfriend from Jakarta
37 Creative PlanningNewton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows:The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directlyproportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same directionas the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.What would happen to the ball if these conditions were changed:The opposition played a trick on David and put down a much heavier ballDavid plays a trick on the opposition by doing extra power training and can now hit the ball some 10% harder
38 A Creative Solution – Situated Invention? Kolkata Story
39 The 4 Results Creative Teachers Seek (and usually get) Create goodrapportGain attention quicklywhen desiredMake learningrelevantand meaningfulImbue positive beliefs andpsychological states
40 Importance of these Results Its biologically impossible to learn anything that you’re not paying attention to; the attentional mechanism drives the whole learning and memory process” (Robert Sylwester, 1998)“Rapport is the ultimate tool for producing results with other people” (Anthony Robbins, 2001)“If you think you can or think you can’t, you’re right” (Henry Ford)“The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your ability, but on the state of your mind…” (Anthony Robbins, 2001)“The more we make school learning like real life, the more the brain, with its rich capabilities, will sort it out” (Eric Jensen, 1997)
41 How Creative Teachers get these Results - (SHAPE) Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchorsHumour used to achieve rapport and provide noveltyActivities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learningPresentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological statesExamples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures…and use these Resources Creatively
42 The Power of SHAPE“We understand everything in human life through stories”(Jean-Paul Sartre)“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain” (Edward De Bono)“Learning activities are the best and most productive wayto learn” (Lambert and Coombs)“The meaning of your communication is the response that you get”(Bandler & Grinder)“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing theirconcentration and effort” (Wlodkowski)
43 Re-defining the World of Bla Where X = ? 10080604020ATENIOXXXXX(%age)SESSION TIME (minutes)
44 The Wolf – Stag Effect Wolves and stags are equally fast. In a chase RunRunRestRunRestRunWolves and stags are equally fast. In a chasesituation the stags run continually, but the wolvesstop for rests. Do the stags usually escape?
45 Resources (SHAPE) to use Strategically and Creatively to Make Teaching Interesting Tell Stories that provide context for learning, create emotional anchors and model good dispositionsUse Humour to provide novelty, illustrate learning and promote rapportReinforce content knowledge and make learning meaningful through challenging but achievable ActivitiesMaximise your Presentation Style to get attention, convey meaning, imbue positive beliefs and enhance psychological statesUse relevant Examples to clearly illustrate concepts and principles(Wolf-like tactics to create more Primacy, Recency and von Restorff effects)
46 Metaphor for Creative Teaching Total PedagogyCREATIVE TEACHING COMPETENCEStrategiesPHEASCORE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
47 Developing your Creative Teaching Competence: Desire to teach creativelyUnderstand the science and art of creative teachingDevelop a wide range of Resources, be able to Reframe and create interesting Strategies (get into great SHAPE)Willingness to take some risksDo it – Be the Best You Can (Total Pedagogy)A bit like a creative life“Dying is tragic, but dying without having actually everlived is the ultimate tragedy”Eric Fromm
48 Modelling SHAPE Resources Select a Resource Area below and model what it takes to develophighly effective use. Follow the question templates provided inthe following slides:StoriesHumourActivitiesPresentation StyleExamples
49 “We understand everything in human life through stories” Jean-Paul SartreWhat are the different ways in which stories can be used to promote effective learning?How to tell stories for effective learning impact?Where can I get useful stories to make my lessons more interesting?
50 Humour“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain” (Edward De Bono)What are the different types of humour that can be used in the classroom?What are the different purposes for using humour in teaching?How to use humour effectively?Where can I get resources of humour that will work for me?
51 Activities “learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn” (Lambert and Coombs, 1998)What are the different types of activities I could use?What is important in designing and managing activities?Where do I get relevant activities that will be challenging but achievable for the students I teach?
52 Presentation Style “The meaning of your communication is the response that you get” (Bandler & Grinder, 1990)What are the various aspects of a persons presentation style that make it effective in creating and maintaining interest?How can I develop a presentation style that is both effective and fits my personality?
53 Examples “A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort” (Wlodkowski, 1999)What makes an example a good example?When is it most effective to use examples?Where can I get good examples for the topics I teach?
54 Online Learning in the Creative Teaching Framework The core principles that underpin good learning design in the face-to-face learning context are equally applicable to designing and managinglearning in the online environment. Learning online does not changethe way the human brain functions or the basic processes of learning.Colvin Clarke (2005) illustrates this fundamental point when he arguedthat:The most robust instructional principles are those based on a model of human psychological learning processes….Any given instructional method will be effective or ineffective depending on the extent to which it supports or disrupts basic-learning psychological processes regardless of the delivery media. (p.594)And...get the learning design intogreat SHAPE
55 Online Versus Face-to-Face Apart from the anytime, anyplace benefits……what else can the online environment offer that creates learning opportunities beyond that of the typical face-to-face classroom context?
56 Hyperlink the ‘Killer’ online feature? “…the hyperlink, which is practicably without counterpart in the physicalworld of traditional academics. Within an internet document, hyperlinksare used to bring multisourced information into the primary text or to givethe reader a path to alternative media. In essence, this eliminates thephysical separation of material messages that are logically connected.In addition to text, hyperlinked messages may be pictures, sound files,animations, or video clips. External links can refer students to otherinformation-rich Internet sites, including personal Web pages, specializedbibliographies, and professional specialists”(Hamilton, S. & Zimmerman, S., 2002, p.270)
57 Utilizing online capability Firstly, it is important to be aware of what unique capabilities areprovided by online technologies. These are typically:Anytime, anyplace access to online resourcesHyperlinked multi-modal, dynamic contentGlobal social networkingSecondly, it is necessary to identify specific technologies and theirpotential learning enhancement capabilities (e.g., which e- tools canenhance specific aspects of learning, for what learners, how and inwhat contexts, etc?). In that an e-tool support any of the coreprinciples, there are possible enhancement to aspects of the learningprocess.
58 To O or not to O? – that is the Question Will the online components enhance the quality of student learning (e.g., increase the potential learning effectiveness for a group of learners – based on how the design positively impacts core principles and SHAPE)?What are the relative costs in resources (e.g., money, time, etc) in using online components as compared to face-to-face teaching? We may be prepared to trade-off some effectiveness for significant gains in efficiency (e.g., in the case of motivated distance learners)
59 Stories “We understand everything in human life through stories” Jean-Paul Sartre What are the different ways in which stories can be used to promote effective learning?Introduce a topic/concept; Illustrate key concepts and/or principles in real world contexts-enhance understanding; Create emotional anchors for learning; Model good attitudes and dispositions; Build rapportWhat is important in telling stories?Clear lively presentation; Relevance to the topic; Timing and emphasis of key learning point(s) in story; Involve students; Draw out relevance if necessary; SensitivitiesWhere can I get useful stories to make my lessons more interesting?Experience; Colleagues, Newspapers; Books; Students, Internet; Folk tales; Industry journals/personnel; TV/Videos
60 Humour “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain” Edward De Bono What are the different types of humour that can be used in the classroom?Jokes; Riddles; Anecdotes; Cartoons; Stories; One-liners, Body Language; Impersonations; Funny’ objectsWhat are the different purposes for using humour in teaching?Get attention; Change psychological state; Icebreaker for new class; Break up periods of teacher talk; Illustrate a fact, concept or principle; Build rapportWhat must we consider carefully before using humour?Political correctness (ethnicity, gender, sexuality); Timing; Presentation styleWhere can I get resources of humour that will work for me?Experience; Colleagues; Internet; Joke books; Journals; Newspapers; TV; videos; Create; Watch and learn from a comedian – model jokes and style
61 Activities “Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn” Lambert and Coombs What are the different types of activities?Specific learning tasks; Quizzes; Competitions; Projects; Visits; Forums; Simulations; Cases; Work experience; Brain gym/puzzles; Experiments; Role play; SongsWhat is important in designing and managing activities?Relevant to learning outcomes; Challenging but achievable; Real life; Meet logistic/support demands; Clear notes of guidance for students; Assessment opportunities; Clear instructions; Create atmosphere; Maintaining interest and discipline; Resources allocation and use; MonitoringWhere do I get relevant activities that will be challenging but achievable for the students I teach?Produce; Colleagues; Resource centres, Internet; Local community/industry;Various media
62 Presentation Style “The meaning of your communication is the response that you get” Bandler & GrinderWhat are the various aspects of a persons presentation style that make it effective in creating and maintaining interest?Clarity and Pace of delivery; Tone of voice; Supporting body language; Variety of style;Eye contact with audience; MovementHow can I develop a presentation style that is both effective and fits my personality?Prepare well; Observe effective presenters; Receive feedback from good presenters; Watch videos of highly effective presenters; Practice, evaluate and modify
63 Examples “A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort” Wlodkowski What makes an example a good example?Relevant to concept, principle, skill being taught; Students can relate to it through their own experiences; It has a strong real life current impact. These provide maximum opportunity for understandingWhen is it most effective to use examples?Before or immediately following the teaching of a concept, principle procedure or skill; When concepts are abstract or difficult to visualiseWhere can I get good examples for the topics I teach?Resource centres, Books, Industry journals, Own experiences, Colleagues, Internet, Create yourself, Commercial packages