Presentation on theme: "Metaphor Creative Teaching Framework Using the Science of Learning to Maximize Teaching & Learning Opportunities."— Presentation transcript:
Metaphor Creative Teaching Framework Using the Science of Learning to Maximize Teaching & Learning Opportunities
Workshop Objectives Identify the impact of quality teaching on student learning Identify the science and art of effective teaching Analyse 10 core principles of learning Utilize a range of resources (including information technologies) to construct creative learning designs and teaching strategies Use the Creative Teaching Framework to teach effectively within your personal style
Teaching Quality – the big factor in Student Learning …nothing is as important to learning as the quality of a students teacher. The difference between a good teacher and a bad teacher is so great that fifth-grade students who have poor teachers in grades three to five score roughly 50 percentile points below similar groups of students who are fortunate enough to have effective teachers (Izumi, T. L. & Evers, W. M., Teacher Quality, ix) The effect of the teacher far overshadows classroom variables, such as previous achievement level of students, class size…heterogeneity of students, and the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the classroom. (Rivers, C. J. & Sanders, W. L., Teacher Quality and Equity in Educational Opportunity, p.17)
Whats Worthwhile about Quality Teaching Turns many students on to learning Makes the job more productive and fun Against boredom even the gods themselves struggle in vain Friedrich Nietzsche
Big Questions 1.What are the specific things that teachers do that lead students to perceive them as Effective & Interesting? 2.How do they do they create Experiences that gets these results?
My Personal View Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity. Charles Mingus
In Awesomely Simple Terms (he says hopefully) A problem solved by R - R - S which takes
The Problem: Descent into the World of Bla ATTENTIONATTENTION SESSION TIME (minutes) (%age) Bla
Just what you fancy after lunch at 2pm Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object Then follow this with 40 mins of exposition and equations
Typical Attention Span
The brain and motivation (why many students are not well motivated) Cloniger 1987 argued that 3 neural systems run our lives 1.The Cortexs quest for Novelty 2.The Mid-Brains quest for Pleasure 3. The Lower-Brains desire to avoid Pain
Its in The Experience Much of classroom learning is not novel or pleasurable. Some may even be painful So, how might teachers create Experiences which: –Add novelty and/or pleasure to learning –Take away some of the pain of learning
Re-defining the World of Bla ATTENTIONATTENTION SESSION TIME (minutes) (%age)
Good Teaching – Science or Art
The Serial Position Curve Position on List Proportion Correct Primacy Effect Recency Effect von Restorff Effect
Psychological Effects Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily) Recency Effect ( the tendency for the most recently presented items or experiences to be remembered best) Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember distinct or novel items and experiences)
Model of Human Memory Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste Working Memory 5-9 bits of information Long – Term Memory ENVIRONMENTENVIRONMENT Forgetting Effective transfer from Working Memory to Long –Term Memory is crucial. This requires information to be well organised, meaningful and sufficiently rehearsed Infinite Capacity
Physiology of learning Learning results in connections between neurons As we learn neurons connect with each other and pass on information. At the physiological level, learning results from the development of connected groups of neurons. As learning is reinforced, myelin is produced which enhances long term memory.
Learning is part of an Holistic System To learn is not the special province of a single specialized realm of human functioning such as cognition or perception. It involves the integrated functioning of the total organism – thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. (Kolb, 1995, p.148) In basic terms, we learn better when we perceive the learning as useful (e.g., satisfy some important need), believe we can be successful at it and enjoy it
Meeting Human Needs Survive and Reproduce Belong – Love, Share and Cooperate Power – Control and Competition Freedom – Autonomy and Choice Fun – Humour and Laughter (From the writings of William Glasser)
Psychological States At the psychological level our state is how we think, feel and perceive at any given moment. As teachers we can certainly influence the here and now experience and, if we do that well, we can promote better psychological states The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your ability, but on the state of your mind… Anthony Robbins, 2001
Magic Eggs - Story Mum, Mum, you dont have to buy eggs anymore coz Im laying them We forget that beliefs are no more than perceptions, usually with a limited sell by date, yet we act as though they were concrete realities (Adler, H., 1996)
Cognitive Dissonance Existing Beliefs New experience, which creates a perception that… Im laying eggs Chickens lay eggs I am not a chicken Cognitive Dissonance
Existing Beliefs New experience, which creates a perception that… I can do this I cant do this I am not smart Cognitive Dissonance
Reframing Reframing refers to putting things in different contexts (frames or reference), thus giving them different meanings. Reframing is the essence of creative thinking. If you dont get the result you want, do something different (Adler, 1996)
Example of System Behaviour Constructing Productive Subjective Experience 1. Meet Core Needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – Glasser, 1988) 2. Positive Psychological State 3. Reframing Buy into the experience Rapport Building Participation & Learning
Towards a Science of Learning There is increasing recognition of a substantive and validated research base that is beginning to constitute a science of learning. For example, Marzano (1992) argued that: …over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough research and theory about learning to derive a truly research based-model of instruction (p.2) More recently, Darling-Hammond & Bransford (2006), from surveying the research findings, concluded that: There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching, and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supports that work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine (p.12)
Core Principles of Learning 1.Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly communicated 2.Learners prior knowledge is activated and connected to new learning 3.Motivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated into learning designs 4.Content is organized around key concepts and principles that are fundamental to understanding the key structure of a subject 5.Self-directed learning is encouraged through facilitating the development of good thinking
Core Principles of Learning [contd] 6.Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage the range of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic) 7.Learning design takes into account the working of memory systems 8.Learner competence is promoted through active and experiential learning 9.A psychological climate is created which is positive, success orientated and promotes self-esteem 10.Assessment practices are integrated into the learning design to promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality feedback
Core Principles - A Synergetic System While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to effective pedagogy, they are not discrete or separate in that they should be considered independently of each other. In fact, they are mutually supporting, interdependent and potentially highly synergetic. As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight: Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individual features thrown together by the teacher. It works more like a machine, with the parts operating together and reinforcing one another, driving the vehicle forward. (p.75)
Using Core Principles Thoughtfully in the Situated Context of learning The core principles of learning must always be used thoughtfully in relation to the following situated factors: The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual understanding, competence, etc) Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior competence, learner preferences, etc) Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning environment, facilities, resources, etc) Its a bit like driving – good drivers are able to adjust situationally to different and changing driving conditions
Teaching as Art? …no science of teaching exists, or can exist, that will be so prescriptive as to make teaching routine. The best that we can hope for – and it is substantial – is to have better tools from science with which teachers can use their heads. (Eisner, 1995, p.96)
<> One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He was curious so he stopped and saw the lights were a pair of cats eyes reflecting the light from his head lights. Percy got back in the car full of ideas and subsequently invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic. After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (Thats Innovation & Enterprise) What is Creativity? A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand. (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35)
Components of Highly Effective Human Performance What is it that top salespeople have? What is it that top comedians have? What is it that successful communicators with the opposite sex have?
R – R - S Results are the outcomes we want in any situation (e.g., sell more cars, make the audience laugh, get attractive dates) Resources are the things we can bring into play in order to get our desired results Strategies are the orchestrated use of our resources to get the results we desire What are the Results, Resources and Strategies of Creative Teachers?
Creative Teaching Do you know Java script well? Yes, I do, I once had a girlfriend from Jakarta How technical am I? Creative teaching occurs when a teacher combines existing knowledge in some novel form to get useful results in terms of facilitating student learning. This may be either planned before the act of teaching, or invented as a response to the demands of the learning situation
Creative Planning Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. What would happen to the ball if these conditions were changed: 1.The opposition played a trick on David and put down a much heavier ball 2.David plays a trick on the opposition by doing extra power training and can now hit the ball some 10% harder
A Creative Solution – Situated Invention? Kolkata Story
The 4 Results Creative Teachers Seek (and usually get) Gain attention quickly when desired Create good rapport Imbue positive beliefs and psychological states Make learning relevant and meaningful
Importance of these Results Its biologically impossible to learn anything that youre not paying attention to; the attentional mechanism drives the whole learning and memory process (Robert Sylwester, 1998) Rapport is the ultimate tool for producing results with other people (Anthony Robbins, 2001) If you think you can or think you cant, youre right (Henry Ford) The difference between acting badly or brilliantly is not based on your ability, but on the state of your mind… (Anthony Robbins, 2001) The more we make school learning like real life, the more the brain, with its rich capabilities, will sort it out (Eric Jensen, 1997)
How Creative Teachers get these Results - (SHAPE) Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchors Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learning Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological states Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures … and use these Resources Creatively
The Power of SHAPE We understand everything in human life through stories (Jean-Paul Sartre) Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain (Edward De Bono) Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn (Lambert and Coombs) The meaning of your communication is the response that you get (Bandler & Grinder) A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort (Wlodkowski)
Re-defining the World of Bla Where X = ? ATTENTIONATTENTION SESSION TIME (minutes) (%age) X XX X X
The Wolf – Stag Effect Run Wolves and stags are equally fast. In a chase situation the stags run continually, but the wolves stop for rests. Do the stags usually escape? Rest
Resources (SHAPE) to use Strategically and Creatively to Make Teaching Interesting Tell Stories that provide context for learning, create emotional anchors and model good dispositions Use Humour to provide novelty, illustrate learning and promote rapport Reinforce content knowledge and make learning meaningful through challenging but achievable Activities Maximise your Presentation Style to get attention, convey meaning, imbue positive beliefs and enhance psychological states Use relevant Examples to clearly illustrate concepts and principles ( Wolf-like tactics to create more Primacy, Recency and von Restorff effects)
Metaphor for Creative Teaching H P A S E CREATIVE TEACHING COMPETENCE CORE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
Developing your Creative Teaching Competence: Desire to teach creatively Understand the science and art of creative teaching Develop a wide range of Resources, be able to Reframe and create interesting Strategies (get into great SHAPE) Willingness to take some risks Do it – Be the Best You Can (Total Pedagogy) A bit like a creative life Dying is tragic, but dying without having actually ever lived is the ultimate tragedy Eric Fromm
Modelling SHAPE Resources Select a Resource Area below and model what it takes to develop highly effective use. Follow the question templates provided in the following slides: Stories Humour Activities Presentation Style Examples
Stories What are the different ways in which stories can be used to promote effective learning? How to tell stories for effective learning impact? Where can I get useful stories to make my lessons more interesting? We understand everything in human life through stories Jean-Paul Sartre
Humour What are the different types of humour that can be used in the classroom? What are the different purposes for using humour in teaching? How to use humour effectively? Where can I get resources of humour that will work for me? Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain (Edward De Bono)
Activities learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn ( Lambert and Coombs, 1998) What are the different types of activities I could use? What is important in designing and managing activities? Where do I get relevant activities that will be challenging but achievable for the students I teach?
Presentation Style The meaning of your communication is the response that you get (Bandler & Grinder, 1990) What are the various aspects of a persons presentation style that make it effective in creating and maintaining interest? How can I develop a presentation style that is both effective and fits my personality?
Examples A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort (Wlodkowski, 1999) What makes an example a good example? When is it most effective to use examples? Where can I get good examples for the topics I teach?
Online Learning in the Creative Teaching Framework The core principles that underpin good learning design in the face-to- face learning context are equally applicable to designing and managing learning in the online environment. Learning online does not change the way the human brain functions or the basic processes of learning. Colvin Clarke (2005) illustrates this fundamental point when he argued that: The most robust instructional principles are those based on a model of human psychological learning processes….Any given instructional method will be effective or ineffective depending on the extent to which it supports or disrupts basic-learning psychological processes regardless of the delivery media. (p.594) And...get the learning design into great SHAPE
Online Versus Face-to-Face Apart from the anytime, anyplace benefits… …what else can the online environment offer that creates learning opportunities beyond that of the typical face-to-face classroom context?
Hyperlink the Killer online feature? …the hyperlink, which is practicably without counterpart in the physical world of traditional academics. Within an internet document, hyperlinks are used to bring multisourced information into the primary text or to give the reader a path to alternative media. In essence, this eliminates the physical separation of material messages that are logically connected. In addition to text, hyperlinked messages may be pictures, sound files, animations, or video clips. External links can refer students to other information-rich Internet sites, including personal Web pages, specialized bibliographies, and professional specialists (Hamilton, S. & Zimmerman, S., 2002, p.270)
Utilizing online capability Firstly, it is important to be aware of what unique capabilities are provided by online technologies. These are typically: Anytime, anyplace access to online resources Hyperlinked multi-modal, dynamic content Global social networking Secondly, it is necessary to identify specific technologies and their potential learning enhancement capabilities (e.g., which e- tools can enhance specific aspects of learning, for what learners, how and in what contexts, etc?). In that an e-tool support any of the core principles, there are possible enhancement to aspects of the learning process.
To O or not to O? – that is the Question 1.Will the online components enhance the quality of student learning (e.g., increase the potential learning effectiveness for a group of learners – based on how the design positively impacts core principles and SHAPE)? 2.What are the relative costs in resources (e.g., money, time, etc) in using online components as compared to face-to-face teaching? We may be prepared to trade-off some effectiveness for significant gains in efficiency (e.g., in the case of motivated distance learners)
Stories We understand everything in human life through stories Jean-Paul Sartre What are the different ways in which stories can be used to promote effective learning? Introduce a topic/concept; Illustrate key concepts and/or principles in real world contexts-enhance understanding; Create emotional anchors for learning; Model good attitudes and dispositions; Build rapport What is important in telling stories? Clear lively presentation; Relevance to the topic; Timing and emphasis of key learning point(s) in story; Involve students; Draw out relevance if necessary; Sensitivities Where can I get useful stories to make my lessons more interesting? Experience; Colleagues, Newspapers; Books; Students, Internet; Folk tales; Industry journals/personnel; TV/Videos
Humour Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain Edward De Bono What are the different types of humour that can be used in the classroom? Jokes; Riddles; Anecdotes; Cartoons; Stories; One-liners, Body Language; Impersonations; Funny objects What are the different purposes for using humour in teaching? Get attention; Change psychological state; Icebreaker for new class; Break up periods of teacher talk; Illustrate a fact, concept or principle; Build rapport What must we consider carefully before using humour? Political correctness (ethnicity, gender, sexuality); Timing; Presentation style Where can I get resources of humour that will work for me? Experience; Colleagues; Internet; Joke books; Journals; Newspapers; TV; videos; Create; Watch and learn from a comedian – model jokes and style
Activities Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn Lambert and Coombs What are the different types of activities? Specific learning tasks; Quizzes; Competitions; Projects; Visits; Forums; Simulations; Cases; Work experience; Brain gym/puzzles; Experiments; Role play; Songs What is important in designing and managing activities? Relevant to learning outcomes; Challenging but achievable; Real life; Meet logistic/support demands; Clear notes of guidance for students; Assessment opportunities; Clear instructions; Create atmosphere; Maintaining interest and discipline; Resources allocation and use; Monitoring Where do I get relevant activities that will be challenging but achievable for the students I teach? Produce; Colleagues; Resource centres, Internet; Local community/industry; Various media
Presentation Style The meaning of your communication is the response that you get Bandler & Grinder What are the various aspects of a persons presentation style that make it effective in creating and maintaining interest? Clarity and Pace of delivery; Tone of voice; Supporting body language; Variety of style; Eye contact with audience; Movement How can I develop a presentation style that is both effective and fits my personality? Prepare well; Observe effective presenters; Receive feedback from good presenters; Watch videos of highly effective presenters; Practice, evaluate and modify
Examples A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort Wlodkowski What makes an example a good example? Relevant to concept, principle, skill being taught; Students can relate to it through their own experiences; It has a strong real life current impact. These provide maximum opportunity for understanding When is it most effective to use examples? Before or immediately following the teaching of a concept, principle procedure or skill; When concepts are abstract or difficult to visualise Where can I get good examples for the topics I teach? Resource centres, Books, Industry journals, Own experiences, Colleagues, Internet, Create yourself, Commercial packages