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The Science & Art of Creative Teaching

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1 The Science & Art of Creative Teaching
Towards a Research-based Pedagogy

2 Teaching Quality – the big factor in Student Learning
“…nothing is as important to learning as the quality of a student’s teacher. The difference between a good teacher and a bad teacher is so great that fifth-grade students who have poor teachers in grades three to five score roughly 50 percentile points below similar groups of students who are fortunate enough to have effective teachers” (Izumi, T. L. & Evers, W. M., Teacher Quality, ix) “The effect of the teacher far overshadows classroom variables, such as previous achievement level of students, class size…heterogeneity of students, and the ethnic and socio-economic makeup of the classroom.” (Rivers, C. J. & Sanders, W. L., Teacher Quality and Equity in Educational Opportunity, p.17)

3 Metaphor Creative Teaching Framework

4 Everything is Experience
As human beings, we are stuck in a process of continuous Experience – even when sleeping Given a choice, people seek experiences that are perceived as pleasurable, novel, and pain reducing – because they satisfy needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – from the work of William Glasser)

5 Teachers are the major players in Experience Shaping
They can make the learning experience useful, effective, interesting - even fun (to varying degrees) ...Or make it boring, tedious and difficult – even painful

6 Outcomes of a dull learning experience - Descent into the World of Bla
100 80 60 40 20 A T E N I O Bla Bla Bla (%age) SESSION TIME (minutes)

7 Just what you fancy after lunch at 2pm
Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object Then follow this with 40 mins of exposition and equations

8 Is this still the case now?
“Teaching is the only major occupation of man for which we have not yet developed tools that make an average person capable of competence and performance. In teaching we rely on the "naturals," the ones who somehow know how to teach”

9 Sadly, Education has been a Creature of Fashion
For those of us who have been around education for a few decades or so –you may remember Traditional (3 RRR’s) Progressive Education - Back to Basics (Traditional) Now Student-centred, inquiry-based, game-based, etc)

10 Educational Jurassic Park
The present vogue is Constructivism and the teacher is no more the Sage on the Stage but the Guide on the Side (Why many don’t take teacher professionalism seriously)

11 Creative Teaching – Science or Art?

12 Moving out of Educational Jurassic Park
“Contrary to common belief, people don’t have different learning styles. They do, however, have different personalities. The distinction is important, because we need to be clear that everybody learns in the same way” (Schank. R., 1999, p.48) “Emphasizing learning styles...are noted for their lack of impact” (Hattie, J, 2009, A synthesis of over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement,p.199) “While our lives and our problems are very different, our brains work in similar ways” (Goulston, 2009, p.3)

13 The Serial Position Curve
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Primacy Effect Recency Effect Proportion Correct von Restorff Effect Position on List

14 Psychological Effects
Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily) Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently presented items or experiences to be remembered best) Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember distinct or novel items and experiences)

15 Model of Human Memory Sight Hearing Touch Smell Taste Working Memory
V I R O M T Working Memory 5-9 bits of information Long – Term Memory Forgetting Infinite Capacity

16 Long Term Memory ...long-term memory is now viewed as the central dominant structure of human cognition. Everything we see, hear and think about is critically dependent on and influenced by our long-term memory We are skillful in an area because our long-term memory contains huge amounts of Information concerning that area. That information permits us to quickly recognize the characteristics of a situation and indicates to us, often unconsciously, what to do and how to do it (Kircher et al, 2006, pp3-4)

17 Activity: Implications of the way our brain processes information
What are the implications of the Serial Position Curve for the design of learning experiences? Are there ways to exploit the psychological effects (PE, VRE, RE) for enhancing learning effectiveness? How can we reduce the rate of forgetting (e.g., failure to transfer information from WM to LTM)? Are there ways to consolidate learning in LTM and help build understanding?

18 Minimize Forgetting through Review
100% Probability of recall Recall without reviews Recall with reviews at intervals next next next minutes day day week with continuous periodic reviews

19 Towards a Science of Learning
…over the past 3 decades, we have amassed enough research and theory about learning to derive a truly research based-model of instruction. (Marzano, 1992, p.2) There are systematic and principled aspects of effective teaching, and there is a base of verifiable evidence of knowledge that supports that work in the sense that it is like engineering or medicine. (Darling-Hammond & Bransford, 2006, p.12)

20 Moving Teaching from Mystery to Heuristics (Core Principles of Learning)
“Heuristics represent an incomplete yet distinctly advanced understanding of what was previously a mystery. But that understanding is unequally distributed. Some people remain stuck in the world of mystery, while others master its heuristics. (Martin, R, 2009, The Design of Business, p.12: Harvard Business Press: Mass) The core principles are a set of heuristics for the design of learning experiences. They are ‘empirically based’ frames from which teaching professionals can effectively and creatively plan student learning experiences.

21 Core Principles of Learning
Learning goals, objectives and expectations are clearly communicated Learners’ prior knowledge is activated and connected to new learning Motivational and Attentional strategies are incorporated into learning designs Content is organized around key concepts and principles that are fundamental to understanding the key structure of a subject Self-directed learning is encouraged through facilitating the development of good thinking

22 Core Principles of Learning [cont’d]
6. Instructional methods and presentation mediums engage the range of human of senses (e.g. visual, auditory, kinaesthetic) Learning design takes into account the working of memory systems Learner competence is promoted through active and experiential learning A psychological climate is created which is positive, success orientated and promotes self-esteem Assessment practices are integrated into the learning design to promote desired learning outcomes and provide quality feedback

23 Core Principles – How they work
While each principle focuses attention on a key area relating to effective pedagogy, they are mutually supporting, interdependent and potentially highly synergetic. As Stigler & Hiebert (1999) highlight: Teaching is a system. It is not a loose mixture of individual features thrown together by the teacher. It works more like a machine, with the parts operating together and reinforcing one another, driving the vehicle forward. (p.75)

24 Using Core Principles Thoughtfully - The Fly Fishing Analogy
Key situated factors involve: The specific learning outcomes (e.g., recall of facts, conceptual understanding, competence) Learner characteristics (e.g., motivational level, prior competence, learner preferences) Learning context and resource availability (e.g., learning environment, facilities, resources)

25 A Frame for Good Pedagogic Design (‘Nice Weaving’)
Learning Experience Instructional Strategies (methods, activities, resources) Core Principles of Learning

26 Creativity: Not Thinking out of the Box
It all happens inside the head, it’s just a questions of what’s in there and what you do with it and how Little in there, little desire and effort to keep making new connections especially across knowledge area – No Useful New Perceptions As with all learning – to be really competent/excellent – it takes hard work -

27 What is Creativity? A product or response will be judged creative to the extent that it is novel, useful or a valuable response to the task at hand. (summarized from Amabile, 1996, p.35) <> One dark foggy night in Halifax, as Percy Shaw was driving home, he saw two small green lights, very close together near the edge of the road. He was curious so he stopped and saw the ‘lights’ were a pair of cats eyes reflecting the light from his head lights. This triggered off his thinking, making some new connections in his brain – subsequently he invented a small device involving two marbles placed close together in a rubber casing; this would then be set in the road at intervals between the lanes of traffic. After a year of experiments, Percy patented the invention and then, in 1935, formed his company, Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd. (That’s Innovation & Enterprise)

28 Creative Teaching How technical am I? Do you know Java script well?
Creative teaching occurs when a teacher combines existing knowledge in some novel form to get useful results in terms of facilitating student learning. This may be either planned before the act of teaching, or invented as a response to the demands of the learning situation How technical am I? Do you know Java script well? Yes, I do, I once had a girlfriend from Jakarta

29 Creative Planning Newton's second law of motion can be formally stated as follows: The acceleration of an object as produced by a net force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. What would happen to the ball if these conditions were changed: The opposition played a trick on David and put down a much heavier ball David plays a trick on the opposition by doing extra power training and can now hit the ball some 10% harder

30 A Creative Solution – Situated Invention?
Kolkata Story

31 What is SHAPE? Stories Humour Examples Activities Presentation Style
A Metaphor for the underlying syntax - ‘the art’ - of Creative Teaching

32 The Power of SHAPE “We understand everything in human life through stories” (Jean-Paul Sartre) “Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain” (Edward De Bono) “Learning activities are the best and most productive way to learn” (Lambert and Coombs) “The meaning of your communication is the response that you get” (Bandler & Grinder) “A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their concentration and effort” (Wlodkowski)

33 The Benefits of Humour for Learning
Refreshes the brain Creates mental images that retain learning Reinforces desired behaviour and makes classroom management easier Develops positive attitudes Promotes creativity Contributes to the enjoyment of teaching

34 Questions: A Powerful Short Activity
“Questions are the primary way we learn virtually everything” “Thinking itself is nothing but the process of asking and answering questions” “Questions immediately change what we focus on and, therefore, how we feel” (Anthony Robbins, 2001, pp.179-8)

35 Presentation Style: Much more than talking
We experience other people through our senses – do they look nice, sound nice, feel nice, smell nice.... Presentation Style refers to all the behaviours we exhibit in the communication process: What we say and how we say it Body language and how well it calibrates to voice (words and tone) How we respond to others – listening, answering questions Sensory Acuity – awareness of what’s going on – observation, listening, meaning making “Its not the matter you cover so much as it is the manner in which you cover it” James Rohn

36 Using SHAPE to Shape the learning experience
Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional anchors Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate learning Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity, meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and psychological states Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles, procedures …and use these Resources Creatively

37 SHAPE as a Metaphor for Expert Teaching
“ teachers use a repertoire of strategies, selecting the most appropriate for use in a particular context and adapting it if necessary for a group of learners A pedagogic repertoire consists of two aspects: approaches, activities, examples, analogies and illustrations for representing facts, skills, concepts, beliefs and attitudes to others; and the skills and strategies used as an integral part of these approaches “ (Turner-Bisset, 2001, p.69)

38 Online Learning in the Creative Teaching Framework
The core principles that underpin good learning design in the face-to- face learning context are equally applicable to designing and managing learning in the online environment. Learning online does not change the way the human brain functions or the basic processes of learning. Colvin Clarke (2005) illustrates this fundamental point when he argued that: The most robust instructional principles are those based on a model of human psychological learning processes….Any given instructional method will be effective or ineffective depending on the extent to which it supports or disrupts basic-learning psychological processes regardless of the delivery media. (p.594)

39 A Metaphor for Highly Effective & Creative Teaching (simple version)
SHAPE CORE PRINCIPLES ‘Great Weaving’ - Yummy

40 Developing your Creative Teaching Competence:
Desire to teach creatively Understand the science and art of creative teaching Develop a wide range of Resources, be able to Reframe and create interesting Strategies (get into great SHAPE) Willingness to take some risks Do it – Be the Best You Can (Total Pedagogy) A bit like a creative life “Dying is tragic, but dying without having actually ever lived is the ultimate tragedy” Eric Fromm

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