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SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY Evolution of rural animation in Hungary Prof. Dr. Irén Kukorelli Széchenyi István University Hungary EMRA Conference: Animation.

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Presentation on theme: "SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY Evolution of rural animation in Hungary Prof. Dr. Irén Kukorelli Széchenyi István University Hungary EMRA Conference: Animation."— Presentation transcript:

1 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY Evolution of rural animation in Hungary Prof. Dr. Irén Kukorelli Széchenyi István University Hungary EMRA Conference: Animation for rural development a new profession? Chania, Crete, 7-9 June 2012

2 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY 1. Rural development concept after transition, outlining the micro- regional level (LAU I) 2. Developing institutional system generated jobs 3. Supply and demand for professionals at local level for sustainable rural development 4. Change of higher education system 5. Meeting points of demand and supply of jobs for rural development (a case of LAGs) ROADMAP

3 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY Causes of changes in Hungarian rural areas in the 90 decade Negative influences land privatalization process decreasing food export increasing unemployment polarization of rural space the polarization of rural space depends on the global economy, the bottom-up policy is not able to prevail Positive influences appearance of bottom-up policy grass-roots initiatives rural development organisations at micro-region level appearance of new functions: rural tourism, environmental protection: national park, nature park SAPARD program LEADER program – LAGs

4 Before systematic change a council system operated in , which meant municipalities had no self-government rights. More than half of the over 3200 independent settlements had a partner village status – without any development resources – way to the rural exodus – these villages has to close their institutions, services, the population were moved to the centre village or to the near town. After 1990 the administrative system and the institutional system of spatial and settlement development were changed. Hungary became a unitary state with a two-tier decision-making system: national and local tiers. Each municipality, irrespective of their number of population, set up independent self-governments, as a result of which almost 3,200 municipalities replaced the former 1,600 council centres, i.e. a disintegration process took place. Institutional system of spatial development at local level in Hungary SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

5 The result: fregmented local governmental system (3200 local governments) – At the same time - signs of cooperation! Association of local governments started in the early 1990s on a totally voluntary basis, bottom-up, from the municipal level desintegration – integration at local level Municipal Associations SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

6 Periods in the developing process of institutional system at micro-regional level A./ first half of 90s B./ Act on Regional Development and Spatial Planning : after1996 D./ Micro-regional associations for rural development (after2000), generated by SAPARD. E./ Multi-purpose micro-regional association 2004 F./ LEADER program after 2005

7 Period 1: non-governmental organisations and entrepreneurs could also join the associations (early 90) Period 2: Act on Regional Development and Spatial Planning passed in 1996 only allowed municipal self-governments to be members in municipal associations: - participation in the work of the county development councils, - to get financial reources through tendering - preapering strategic plan for the future - to implement it through some projects Municipal Associations SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

8 Demand for job at micro-regional level - to build a daily contact with mayors and the regional organisations (e.g. unemployment office), county development council, -to arrange everything connecting to the development, -- to handle the unemployment problems, -- to organize meetings for the rural people --to prepare development plan for association, Supply - Young economist - Young agricultural engineer - Sociologist - Unemployment professionals It was a douptful job! Financial support from National Employment Foundation, or PHARE or Foundation of Entreprices for a short period.

9 Micro-regional Associations in Hungary in 2002 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

10 Period 3 (since 2004) multi-purpose micro-regional association: the central government pressed the municipal associations in 2004 to take over municipal public service tasks in addition to the development activities. Although the municipal associations were not forced by law to take up such tasks, extra financial means were awarded to those associations that took at least three public services from the municipal self-governments belonging to the association. Before this period - from the beginning the micro-regional cooperations were able, on completely voluntary basis, to assert the local wills and interests, but they have lost their initial momentum by period 3. Municipal Associations SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

11 Rural Development Associations: in 1999 another micro-regional cooperation started, this was the so-called SAPARD, or micro-regional cooperation with rural development purpose. By 2000, 194 such cooperations were registered. Tasks of these associations: - the acquisition of SAPARD funds - the assistance of the farmers in tendering - the coordination of village renewal programmes Each micro-regional cooperation was headed by a so-called rural development manager – rural animator?. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004, accordingly SAPARD as a pre-accession fund ceased to exist Institutional system of rural development SAPARD: Support for Pre-Accession measures for Agriculture and Rural Development, a pre-accession aid programme SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

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13 No. 1698/2005 of the Council of Europe, Par. 68, i.e. - Each Member State shall establish a national rural network, which groups the organisations and administrations involved in rural development Hungarian National Rural Network (HNRN) was established, but in the European Union Hungary was the only member state to authorise this organisation with national rural policy competencies. This organisation can make recommendations at national level in rural policy, spatial development and infrastructure investment issues. This organisation with its broad social support is a new type of rural policy tools, and also a social political force This organisation created the system of Local Rural Development Offices (LRDO), which operated at micro-region (NUTS 4) level and was closely related to the local LEADER groups which are also members of the MNVH Hungarian National Rural Network (MNVH) SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

14 Economist Agricultural engineer Teacher, social workerGeographer Environmental engineerLawyer Engineer and informatics Landscape engineer Secondary degreeOthersTotal Western Transdanubia Central-Hungary Central- Transdanubia Northen Hungary Northen Great- Plain Southern Transdanubia Southern Great- Plain Total Professions of employments in LEADER groups in Hungary

15 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY NUTS II regions in Hungary

16 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY

17 Program titleUniversity NameDepartmentCity MSc in Rural Development and Agribusiness University of DebrecenFaculty of Economics and Rural DevelopmentDebrecen MSc in Rural Development and Agribusiness Károly Róbert UniversityFaculty of Economics and Social SciencesGyöngyös MSc in Rural Development and Agribusiness Szent István UniversityFaculty of Economics and Social SciencesGödöllő MSc in Rural Development and Agribusiness University of PannonGeorgikon FacultyKeszthely MSc in Rural Development and Agribusiness University of West HungaryFaculty of Agricultural and Food SciencesMosonmagyaróvár MSc in Rural Development and Agribusiness Kaposvár UniversityFaculty of Agricultural and Food SciencesKaposvár MSc in Rural DevelopmentCorvinus UniversityFaculty of EconomicsBudapest Agricultural Environmental Management Engineer University of West HungaryFaculty of Agricultural and Food SciencesMosonmagyaróvár MA in Tourism and ManagementUniversity of PécsIllyés Gyula FacultySzekszárd MA in Regional and Environmental Economics Széchenyi István UniversityFaculty of EconomicsGyőr Agricultural EngineerUniversity of PannonGeorgikon FacultyKeszthely Agricultural EngineerUniversity of DebrecenFaculty of Agricultural SciencesDebrecen Agricultural Engineer Szent István University Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Gödöllő Agricultural Environmental Management Engineer University of DebrecenFaculty of Agricultural SciencesDebrecen Agricultural Environmental Management Engineer University of PannonGeorgikon FacultyKeszthely Landscape ArchitectureCorvinus UniversityFaculty of Landscape ArchitectureBudapest MSc in Urban (civil) EngineeringUniversity of PécsPolláck Mihály Faculty of EngineeringPécs MSc in Environmental EngineeringUniversity of PannonFaculty of EngineeringVeszprém MA in Regional and Environmental Economics University of West HungaryFaculty of EconomicsSopron MSc in Regional and Environmental Economic Studies Corvinus UniversityFaculty of EconomicsBudapest MS.c programs connecting to rural development in Hungary

18 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY Conclusion from the beginning there was demand on rural animators at micro- regional levels from the beginning in the higher education system this complex education on rural expert was missing from the middle of 90s in the higher education system new programs and courses appeared connecting to the demand on rural animation Since 2007 the institutional system has changed in rural development, 96 LAGs were launched generated 485 jobs in rural development So far the profession of rural animator has not meet any higher education program.

19 Thank you for your attention! Iren Kukorelli SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY


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