Presentation on theme: "Evolution of rural animation in Hungary"— Presentation transcript:
1 Evolution of rural animation in Hungary SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYEvolution of rural animation in HungaryProf. Dr. Irén KukorelliSzéchenyi István University HungaryEMRA Conference: “Animation for rural development — a new profession?”Chania, Crete, 7-9 June 2012
2 2. Developing institutional system generated jobs SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYROADMAP1. Rural development concept after transition, outlining the micro-regional level (LAU I)2. Developing institutional system generated jobs3. Supply and demand for professionals at local level for sustainable rural development4. Change of higher education system5. Meeting points of demand and supply of jobs for rural development (a case of LAGs)
3 Causes of changes in Hungarian rural areas in the 90’ decade SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYCauses of changes in Hungarian rural areas in the 90’ decadeNegative influencesland privatalization processdecreasing food exportincreasing unemploymentpolarization of rural spacethe polarization of rural space depends on the global economy, the bottom-up policy is not able to prevailPositive influencesappearance of bottom-up policygrass-roots initiativesrural development organisations at micro-region levelappearance of new functions: rural tourism, environmental protection: national park, nature parkSAPARD programLEADER program – LAG’s
4 Institutional system of spatial development at local level in Hungary SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYInstitutional system of spatial developmentat local level in HungaryBefore systematic change a council system operated in , which meant municipalities had no self-government rights.More than half of the over 3200 independent settlements had a „partner village status” – without any development resources – way to the rural exodus – these villages has to close their institutions, services, the population were moved to the centre village or to the near town.After 1990 the administrative system and the institutional system of spatial and settlement development were changed.Hungary became a unitary state with a two-tier decision-making system: national and local tiers.Each municipality, irrespective of their number of population, set up independent self-governments, as a result of which almost 3,200 municipalities replaced the former 1,600 council centres, i.e. a disintegration process took place.The inhabitants of small
5 Municipal Associations SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYMunicipal AssociationsThe result: fregmented local governmental system (3200 local governments) –At the same time - signs of cooperation! Association of local governments started in the early 1990s on a totally voluntary basis, bottom-up, from the municipal leveldesintegration – integrationat local level
6 Periods in the developing process of institutional system SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYPeriods in the developing process of institutional systemat micro-regional levelA./ first half of 90’sB./ Act on Regional Development and Spatial Planning : after1996D./ Micro-regional associations for rural development (after2000), generated by SAPARD.E./ Multi-purpose micro-regional association 2004F./ LEADER program after 2005
7 Municipal Associations SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYMunicipal AssociationsPeriod 1: non-governmental organisations and entrepreneurs could also join the associations (early 90’) Period 2: Act on Regional Development and Spatial Planning passed in 1996 only allowed municipal self-governments to be members in municipal associations: - participation in the work of the county development councils, - to get financial reources through tendering - preapering strategic plan for the future - to implement it through some projects
8 Demand for job at micro-regional level SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYDemand for job at micro-regional levelSupply- to build a daily contact with mayors and the regional organisations (e.g. unemployment office), county development council,to arrange everything connecting to the development,- to handle the unemployment problems,- to organize meetings for the rural people-to prepare development plan for association,Young economistYoung agricultural engineerSociologistUnemployment professionalsIt was a douptful job! Financial support from National Employment Foundation, or PHARE or Foundation of Entreprices for a short period.
9 Micro-regional Associations in Hungary in 2002 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYMicro-regional Associations in Hungary in 2002
10 Municipal Associations SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYMunicipal AssociationsPeriod 3 (since 2004) multi-purpose micro-regional association: the central government pressed the municipal associations in 2004 to take over municipal public service tasks in addition to the development activities. Although the municipal associations were not forced by law to take up such tasks, extra financial means were awarded to those associations that took at least three public services from the municipal self-governments belonging to the association.Before this period - from the beginning the micro-regional cooperations were able, on completely voluntary basis, to assert the local wills and interests, but they have lost their initial momentum by period 3.
11 Institutional system of rural development SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYInstitutional system of rural developmentRural Development Associations: in 1999 another micro-regional cooperation started, this was the so-called SAPARD, or micro-regional cooperation with rural development purpose.By 2000, 194 such cooperations were registered.Tasks of these associations:- the acquisition of SAPARD funds- the assistance of the farmers in tendering- the coordination of village renewal programmesEach micro-regional cooperation was headed by a so-called rural development manager – rural animator?.Hungary joined the European Union in 2004, accordingly SAPARD as a pre-accession fund ceased to existSAPARD: Support for Pre-Accession measures for Agriculture and Rural Development, a pre-accession aid programme
13 Hungarian National Rural Network (MNVH) SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYHungarian National Rural Network (MNVH)No. 1698/2005 of the Council of Europe, Par. 68, i.e. - “Each Member State shall establish a national rural network, which groups the organisations and administrations involved in rural development.”Hungarian National Rural Network (HNRN) was established, but in the European Union Hungary was the only member state to authorise this organisation with national rural policy competencies.This organisation can make recommendations at national level in rural policy, spatial development and infrastructure investment issues.This organisation with its broad social support is a new type of rural policy tools, and also a social political forceThis organisation created the system of Local Rural Development Offices (LRDO), which operated at micro-region (NUTS 4) level and was closely related to the local LEADER groups which are also members of the MNVH
14 Agricultural engineer Environmental engineer Engineer and informatics Professions of employments in LEADER groups in HungarySZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYEconomistAgricultural engineerTeacher, social workerGeographerEnvironmental engineerLawyerEngineer and informaticsLandscape engineerSecondary degreeOthersTotalWestern Transdanubia2137- 829157Central-Hungary6431Central-Transdanubia17101451165Northen Hungary26151998Northen Great-Plain1273Southern Transdanubia1678Southern Great-Plain -23831167677243920103485
15 NUTS II regions in Hungary SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYNUTS II regions in Hungary
17 MS.c programs connecting to rural development in Hungary SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYMS.c programs connecting to rural development in HungaryProgram titleUniversity NameDepartmentCityMSc in Rural Development and AgribusinessUniversity of DebrecenFaculty of Economics and Rural DevelopmentDebrecenKároly Róbert UniversityFaculty of Economics and Social SciencesGyöngyösSzent István UniversityGödöllőUniversity of PannonGeorgikon FacultyKeszthelyUniversity of West HungaryFaculty of Agricultural and Food SciencesMosonmagyaróvárKaposvár UniversityKaposvárMSc in Rural DevelopmentCorvinus UniversityFaculty of EconomicsBudapestAgricultural Environmental Management EngineerMA in Tourism and ManagementUniversity of PécsIllyés Gyula FacultySzekszárdMA in Regional and Environmental EconomicsSzéchenyi István UniversityGyőrAgricultural EngineerFaculty of Agricultural SciencesFaculty of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesLandscape ArchitectureFaculty of Landscape ArchitectureMSc in Urban (civil) EngineeringPolláck Mihály Faculty of EngineeringPécsMSc in Environmental EngineeringFaculty of EngineeringVeszprémSopronMSc in Regional and Environmental Economic Studies
18 SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITY Conclusionfrom the beginning there was demand on rural animators at micro- regional levelsfrom the beginning in the higher education system this complex education on rural expert was missingfrom the middle of 90’s in the higher education system new programs and courses appeared connecting to the demand on rural animationSince 2007 the institutional system has changed in rural development, 96 LAGs were launched generated 485 jobs in rural developmentSo far the profession of rural animator has not meet any higher education program.
19 Thank you for your attention! SZÉCHENYI ISTVÁN UNIVERSITYThank youfor your attention!Iren Kukorelli