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This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Research Process: How We Find Things Out

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Scientific Method What are the components of the scientific method? What are the components of the scientific method? Specify a problem Specify a problem Systematic observation Systematic observation Data Data Replication Replication Form a hypothesis Form a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Test the hypothesis Operational definition Operational definition Formulate a theory Formulate a theory Test the theory Test the theory

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Scientific Method What is the relationship between theory, prediction (hypothesis), and data? What is the relationship between theory, prediction (hypothesis), and data? TheoryData Prediction Theory development, validation, correction

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Descriptive Research Naturalistic observation Naturalistic observation Allows one to see patterns in the real world Allows one to see patterns in the real world Case studies Case studies Focus on a single interesting case in detail Focus on a single interesting case in detail Surveys Surveys A set of questions put to a number of participants about their beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities A set of questions put to a number of participants about their beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or activities

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Correlational Research Studies where the relationships between two or more variables are measured but not manipulated Examples Examples Family income and IQ score Family income and IQ score Height and shoe size Height and shoe size MAO levels and thrill seeking MAO levels and thrill seeking

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Correlation Strength and direction

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Correlation Research Strength Strength Can study variables that cannot be manipulated Can study variables that cannot be manipulated Weakness Weakness Correlation does not imply causation Correlation does not imply causation

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Designing Experiments: Independent Variable The aspect of a situation that is intentionally varied while another aspect is measured Examples Examples Amount of practice allowed Amount of practice allowed Participants randomly assigned so that they receive a drug or placebo Participants randomly assigned so that they receive a drug or placebo Present visual or auditory stimuli Present visual or auditory stimuli Temperature of room Temperature of room

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Designing Experiments: Dependent Variable The aspect of a situation that is measured while the independent variable is changed Examples Examples Number of words recalled Number of words recalled Speed of response Speed of response Number of cigarettes smoked Number of cigarettes smoked Electrical activity in the brain Electrical activity in the brain

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Designing Experiments: Effects The difference in the dependent variable that is due to changes in the independent variable Examples Examples Drug X impairs short-term memory Drug X impairs short-term memory Visualization improves athletic performance Visualization improves athletic performance Practice improves reading speed Practice improves reading speed

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Experiments Experimental group Experimental group Control group Control group Random assignment Random assignment Strength Strength Rigorous control, causal inferences Rigorous control, causal inferences Weakness Weakness Not all variables can be manipulated Not all variables can be manipulated

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Quasi-Experiments Like experiments but without random assignment Like experiments but without random assignment Strength Strength Real-world phenomena that cannot be studied in experiments Real-world phenomena that cannot be studied in experiments Weakness Weakness Lack of control means limited causal inferences Lack of control means limited causal inferences

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Being a Critical Consumer Reliability Reliability Validity Validity Face validity Face validity Content validity Content validity Criterion validity Criterion validity Construct validity Construct validity

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Bias and Expectation Response bias Response bias Sampling bias Sampling bias Experimenter expectancy effects Experimenter expectancy effects Double-blind design Double-blind design

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Pseudopsychology Unsupported opinion pretending to be psychological science Unsupported opinion pretending to be psychological science What makes a discipline a science? What makes a discipline a science? Is it the topic of study? Is it the topic of study? Is it the method of study? Is it the method of study? Examples Examples ESP ESP Astrology Astrology

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Statistics: Measuring Reality Benjamin Disraeli: There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics. Benjamin Disraeli: There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics. Be a critical statistics consumer; know the basics Be a critical statistics consumer; know the basics Two main types of statistics Two main types of statistics Descriptive Descriptive Inferential Inferential

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Descriptive Statistics Central tendency Central tendency Mean Mean Median Median Mode Mode Normal distribution Normal distribution

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Descriptive Statistics Variability Variability Range Range Standard deviation Standard deviation Relative standing Relative standing Percentile rank Percentile rank

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Inferential Statistics Do patterns in measurement reflect true patterns or just chance variation? Do patterns in measurement reflect true patterns or just chance variation? Statistical significance Statistical significance A measured relationship is not simply due to chance A measured relationship is not simply due to chance Expressed in terms of probability (p) Expressed in terms of probability (p) Psychologists generally view a finding as statistically significant if it has no more than a 5% probability of occurring by chance Psychologists generally view a finding as statistically significant if it has no more than a 5% probability of occurring by chance

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Inferential Statistics Sampling Sampling Population Population Sample Sample Sampling error Sampling error Meta-analysis Meta-analysis Population Sample

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Lying with Statistics Selective reporting Selective reporting Which statistics are reported and which are omitted? Which statistics are reported and which are omitted?

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Lying with Graphs Shortening the Y axis Shortening the Y axis

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Lying with Graphs Lengthening the Y axis Lengthening the Y axis

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Lying with Graphs Tricking the visual system Tricking the visual system Using 3-D graphics to exaggerate size Using 3-D graphics to exaggerate size Changing width with height Changing width with height Plotting transformed data Plotting transformed data

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Reading Research Reports QALMRI method QALMRI method Question Question Alternatives Alternatives Logic of the study Logic of the study Method Method Results Results Inferences Inferences

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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Writing Research Papers Introduction Introduction Method Method Results Results Discussion Discussion

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