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Can Commercial Airlines Achieve One Level of Safety By Embarking on a Program of One Level of Training ? What is the relationship between Training and.

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Presentation on theme: "Can Commercial Airlines Achieve One Level of Safety By Embarking on a Program of One Level of Training ? What is the relationship between Training and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Can Commercial Airlines Achieve One Level of Safety By Embarking on a Program of One Level of Training ? What is the relationship between Training and Safety in Commercial Air Operations? …continued…

2 Experience or Training?

3 Training Before the right stuff walked on the moon, they trained

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8 Spacemen in training?

9 Trained, Qualified & Ready

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13 Training Before the right stuff walked on the moon, they trained

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18 Spacemen in training?

19 Trained, Qualified & Ready

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23 Level of training Proficiency: Knowledge, procedures and maneuvers? Substance: Number of syllabus subjects? Sophistication: Depth of syllabus-Intro, basic, intermediate, advanced, special cases & case studies?

24 Level of training in terms of Practical Learning Our argument: –Every airline should have training at the same level –Not the same training, but training at the same level Lets look at various levels of training –in terms of practical learning –to see some differences

25 Level of Proficiency Self study 1. Read an article, bulletin 2. Read an article, take open book test 3. Attend a lecture, media based briefing

26 Level of Proficiency Academic Study 4. Lecture with Q & A 5. Seminar with interaction and discussion 6. Do an exercise, do a group exercise 7. Prepare for a verbal recital of knowledge, oral exam

27 Level of Proficiency Flight Simulation 8. Flight simulator for knowledge 9. Simulator for procedural training 10. Simulator procedural validation check 11. Practice a maneuver in a simulator 12. Maneuver validation simulator check 13. Line Oriented Flight maneuver sim check

28 Level of Proficiency In-Aircraft Flight 14. Do line experience training 15. Do line check, initial qualification, facilitated debrief 16. Do line operational safety audit regularly for all crews with facilitated debrief 16 Levels of Proficiency 16 Levels of Proficiency

29 Level of Proficiency Higher the level of training, the higher the proficiency from self study to in aircraft flight training

30 Level of training in terms of substance of subjects CRM ? FAA ATP & Type rating require verification of CRM skills during 2 hour Check Rides Some majors provide 2 day CRM course –6 person jury personality computerized test –personality profile review –comparison to self personality test –Multiple group exercises

31 Level of training in terms of substance CRM? Buffalo, Lexington, Tenerife…. How well trained was crew in CRM? How effective was their CRM? Is competency by checking as valid as competency by training? Is sitting for the exam as valid as training? We dont think so.

32 Training Yields Discipline Train, train, train until: You fly like you train Discipline to SOP All crewmembers All the time Training is Not the same as verification by checking

33 Levels of Substance Precision Approaches –Basic ILS procedures –Hand flown, automation –ILS with PRM –ILS CAT 2/3 –ILS with engine failure –ILS failure mode training –ILS Go Around in Mountainous Terrain

34 Levels of Substance Non-Precision Approaches –Localizer, ILS glide slope inop, VOR, NDB –beacons not collocated at field, wind –Automation modes –Engine failure –Go around in mountainous terrain –Special cases, Mishap scenarios

35 Levels of Substance Engine Failure –V1 Cut –V1 Cut night IMC –V2 Cut –V1 Cut in Mountainous Terrain, special engine out procedures –Other system failures –Case Studies, special scenarios, weather

36 Levels of Substance Wind Shear –Crew recognition –Automated annunciation –Hand flown: take off, approach, landing –Automation flown –Radar Procedures –Case Studies of Wind Shear mishaps

37 Levels of Substance Aircraft Maneuvering –Turn pattern, stall series Stall warning –Unusual attitudes, Vg-Vn Diagram –Departure from controlled flight –Loss of Controllability –Angle of Attack recovery maneuvers –Icing effect on stall, stall warning & recovery –Case Studies, Aircraft Mishaps

38 Levels of Substance CFIT –CFTI recognition and prevention –CFIT warnings –CFIT recovery maneuvers –EGPWS training –Special case airports in airline system –Case studies from around the world

39 Levels of Substance Cold Weather Ops and Icing In Flight –Pre Flight Preparations –Anti-Icing, Deicing –Ground ops –In flight icing encounters –Meteorological in-flight recognition cues –Case Studies of Cold Weather and Icing related mishaps

40 Levels of Substance Weight and Balance –Basic calculations, limits –Line procedures, Forms used, Checklists –Responsibilities: Flight Crew, Ground Supervisor, Loading Crew, –Automation –MEL, CDL, DMP: limits –Live animals, plants, medicines, high value –HAZMAT procedures

41 Levels of Substance Human Factors –Fatigue recognition –Communications –Crew Resource Management CRM –Threat and Error Management TEM –Man Machine Automation –SOP –Checklists

42 Levels of Substance Navigation –Finer points of SIDS & STARS, notes –ILS Approach plate details –Airport diagram, hot spots –Runway information details, 10-9A, Grooving Porous Friction Coating Anti Skid Layer Crowning

43 Levels of Substance Training Level of Substance should be very high Include: –all details of all operations, all SOP –As complete as you can make it –All Risks encountered, expected in line ops –very large investment: Time, People, Money Will pay off with mishap free operation!

44 Levels of Substance Training Or the minimum to satisfy the regulator?

45 ru Seeking One Level of Safety? If you are seeking one level of safety amongst all commercial airlines, Wouldnt you want to seek one level of training amongst all commercial airlines?

46 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediateAdvanced Special Case Studies

47 Levels of Sophistication Introduction: Orientation, Big Picture, What is it all about? BasicIntermediateAdvanced Special Case Studies

48 Levels of Sophistication Introduction Basic: Knowledge, ideas, elements, components IntermediateAdvanced Special Case Studies

49 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasic Intermediate: Procedural, SOP Advanced Special Case Studies

50 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediate Advanced: Maneuvers, interactions Special Case Studies

51 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediateAdvanced Special Case Studies & Lessons Learned

52 Level of Training Measurements 16 Levels of Proficiency 40 Levels of Substance (chosen because of skill importance) 5 Levels of Sophistication

53 Level of Training Measurements ProficiencySubstanceSophistication

54 Proficiency plotted on the z axis Substance plotted on the x axis Sophistication plotted on the y axis

55 Level of Training Measurements Proficiency plotted on the z axis Substance plotted on the x axis Sophistication plotted on the y axis Gives a nice three dimensional graphic of where each operation is in terms of level of training.

56 Level of Training: Proficiency 1. Read an article, bulletin 2. Read an article, take open book test 3. Attend a lecture, media based briefing 4. Receive a lecture with Q & A 5. Attend seminar with interaction and discussion 6. Do an exercise, do a group exercise 7. Prepare for a verbal recital of knowledge, oral exam 8. Flight simulator for knowledge 9. Simulator for procedural training 10. Simulator procedural validation check 11. Practice a maneuver in a simulator 12. Maneuver validation simulator check 13. Line Oriented Flight maneuver sim Check 14. Do line experience training in aircraft 15. Do line check in aircraft for initial qualification with facilitated debrief 16. Do a line operational safety audit regularly for all crews with facilitated debrief

57 Level of Training: Substance 1. TEM 2. CRM 3. Non Prec App 4. Prec App 5. FOM MRB 6. TCAS 7. CFIT 8. EGPWS 9. Wt & Bal 10. Windshear 11. V1 Cuts 12. Grnd Ops 13. System Failure 14. GA/MA 15. Upset Recovery 16. Glass 17. EFB 18. Divert Air 19. MEL CDL 20. RTO 21. Incursion 22. Icing 23. ReDispatch/ReRelease 24. Cold Wx Ops 25. DRVSM 26. Human Factors 27. Comm 28. SIDs 29. STARs 30. Wet RW Ops 31. CAT 2/3 32. Hazmat 33. Fatigue 34. Intl Ops 35. ETOPS 36. Radar 37. MNPS 38. Long Range Nav 39. Intercept 40. Security

58 Level of Training: Sophistication 1. Introduction 2. Basic 3. Intermediate 4. Advanced 5. Special Case Studies

59 Minimum Training Level Primary Subjects

60 Minimum Training Level Secondary Subjects


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