Presentation on theme: "Can Commercial Airlines Achieve “One Level of Safety” By Embarking on a Program of “One Level of Training” ? What is the relationship between Training."— Presentation transcript:
1 Can Commercial Airlines Achieve “One Level of Safety” By Embarking on a Program of “One Level of Training” ?What is the relationship between Training and Safety in Commercial Air Operations?…continued…
23 “Level of training” Proficiency: Knowledge, procedures and maneuvers? Substance: Number of syllabus subjects?Sophistication: Depth of syllabus-Intro, basic, intermediate, advanced, special cases & case studies?
24 Level of training in terms of Practical Learning Our argument:Every airline should have training at the same levelNot the same training, but training at the same levelLet’s look at various levels of trainingin terms of practical learningto see some differences
25 Level of Proficiency Self study 1. Read an article, bulletin 2. Read an article, take open book test3. Attend a lecture, media based briefing
26 Level of Proficiency Academic Study 4. Lecture with Q & A 5. Seminar with interaction and discussion6. Do an exercise, do a group exercise7. Prepare for a verbal recital of knowledge, oral exam
27 Level of Proficiency Flight Simulation 8. Flight simulator for knowledge9. Simulator for procedural training10. Simulator procedural validation check11. Practice a maneuver in a simulator12. Maneuver validation simulator check13. Line Oriented Flight maneuver sim check
28 Level of Proficiency In-Aircraft Flight 14. Do line experience training15. Do line check, initial qualification, facilitated debrief16. Do line operational safety audit regularly for all crews with facilitated debrief16 Levels of Proficiency
29 Level of ProficiencyHigher the level of training, the higher the proficiency from self study to in aircraft flight training
30 Level of training in terms of substance of subjects CRM ?FAA ATP & Type rating require verification of CRM skills during 2 hour Check RidesSome majors provide 2 day CRM course6 person jury personality computerized testpersonality profile reviewcomparison to self personality testMultiple group exercises
31 Level of training in terms of substance CRM?Buffalo, Lexington, Tenerife….How well trained was crew in CRM?How effective was their CRM?Is competency by checking as valid as competency by training?Is sitting for the exam as valid as training?We don’t think so.
32 Training Yields Discipline Train, train, train until:You fly like you trainDiscipline to SOPAll crewmembersAll the timeTraining is Not the same as verification by checking
33 Levels of Substance Precision Approaches Basic ILS procedures Hand flown, automationILS with PRMILS CAT 2/3ILS with engine failureILS failure mode trainingILS Go Around in Mountainous Terrain
34 Levels of Substance Non-Precision Approaches Localizer, ILS glide slope inop, VOR, NDBbeacons not collocated at field, windAutomation modesEngine failureGo around in mountainous terrainSpecial cases, Mishap scenarios
35 Levels of Substance Engine Failure V1 Cut V1 Cut night IMC V2 Cut V1 Cut in Mountainous Terrain, special engine out proceduresOther system failuresCase Studies, special scenarios, weather
36 Levels of Substance Wind Shear Crew recognition Automated annunciation Hand flown: take off, approach, landingAutomation flownRadar ProceduresCase Studies of Wind Shear mishaps
37 Levels of Substance Aircraft Maneuvering Turn pattern, stall series Stall warningUnusual attitudes, Vg-Vn DiagramDeparture from controlled flightLoss of ControllabilityAngle of Attack recovery maneuversIcing effect on stall, stall warning & recoveryCase Studies, Aircraft Mishaps
38 Levels of Substance CFIT CFTI recognition and prevention CFIT warnings CFIT recovery maneuversEGPWS trainingSpecial case airports in airline systemCase studies from around the world
39 Levels of Substance Cold Weather Ops and Icing In Flight Pre Flight PreparationsAnti-Icing, DeicingGround opsIn flight icing encountersMeteorological in-flight recognition cuesCase Studies of Cold Weather and Icing related mishaps
40 Levels of Substance Weight and Balance Basic calculations, limits Line procedures, Forms used, ChecklistsResponsibilities: Flight Crew, Ground Supervisor, Loading Crew,AutomationMEL, CDL, DMP: limitsLive animals, plants, medicines, high valueHAZMAT procedures
41 Levels of Substance Human Factors Fatigue recognition Communications Crew Resource Management CRMThreat and Error Management TEMMan Machine AutomationSOPChecklists
42 Levels of Substance Navigation Finer points of SIDS & STARS, notes ILS Approach plate detailsAirport diagram, hot spotsRunway information details, 10-9A,GroovingPorous Friction CoatingAnti Skid LayerCrowning
43 Levels of Substance Training Level of Substance should be very highInclude:all details of all operations, all SOPAs complete as you can make itAll Risks encountered, expected in line opsvery large investment: Time, People, MoneyWill pay off with mishap free operation!
44 Levels of Substance Training Or the minimum to satisfy the regulator?
45 ru Seeking One Level of Safety? If you are seeking one level of safety amongst all commercial airlines,Wouldn’t you want to seek one level of training amongst all commercial airlines?
46 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediateAdvancedSpecial Case Studies
47 Levels of Sophistication Introduction: Orientation, Big Picture, What is it all about?BasicIntermediateAdvancedSpecial Case Studies
48 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasic: Knowledge, ideas, elements, componentsIntermediateAdvancedSpecial Case Studies
49 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediate: Procedural, SOPAdvancedSpecial Case Studies
50 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediateAdvanced: Maneuvers, interactionsSpecial Case Studies
51 Levels of Sophistication IntroductionBasicIntermediateAdvancedSpecial Case Studies & Lessons Learned
52 Level of Training Measurements 16 Levels of Proficiency40 Levels of Substance (chosen because of skill importance)5 Levels of Sophistication
53 Level of Training Measurements ProficiencySubstanceSophistication
54 Level of Training Measurements Proficiency plotted on the z axisSubstance plotted on the x axisSophistication plotted on the y axis
55 Level of Training Measurements Proficiency plotted on the z axisSubstance plotted on the x axisSophistication plotted on the y axisGives a nice three dimensional graphic of where each operation is in terms of “level of training.”
56 Level of Training: Proficiency 1. Read an article, bulletin2. Read an article, take open book test3. Attend a lecture, media based briefing4. Receive a lecture with Q & A5. Attend seminar with interaction and discussion6. Do an exercise, do a group exercise7. Prepare for a verbal recital of knowledge, oral exam8. Flight simulator for knowledge9. Simulator for procedural training10. Simulator procedural validation check11. Practice a maneuver in a simulator12. Maneuver validation simulator check13. Line Oriented Flight maneuver sim Check14. Do line experience training in aircraft15. Do line check in aircraft for initial qualification with facilitated debrief16. Do a line operational safety audit regularly for all crews with facilitated debrief