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Nonrenewable Energy Resources Chapter 17 Advanced Placement Environmental Science.

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Presentation on theme: "Nonrenewable Energy Resources Chapter 17 Advanced Placement Environmental Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nonrenewable Energy Resources Chapter 17 Advanced Placement Environmental Science

2 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

3 Energy Sources ßModern society requires large quantities of energy that are generated from the earths natural resources. ßPrimary Energy Resources: The fossil fuels(oil, gas, and coal), nuclear energy, falling water, geothermal, and solar energy. ßSecondary Energy Resources: Those sources which are derived from primary resources such as electricity, fuels from coal, (synthetic natural gas and synthetic gasoline), as well as alcohol fuels.

4 Thermodynamics ßThe laws of thermodynamics tell us two things about converting heat energy from steam to work: ß1) ß1)The conversion of heat to work cannot be 100 % efficient because a portion of the heat is wasted. ß2) ß2)The efficiency of converting heat to work increases as the heat temperature increases.

5 Energy Units and Use ßBTU (British Thermal Unit) - amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water by 1 ºF. ßcal (calorie) - the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ºC. Commonly, kilocalorie (kcal) is used. ß1 Btu = 252 cal = kcal ß1 Btu = 1055 J (joule) = kJ ß1 cal = J

6 ßTwo other units that are often seen are the horsepower and the watt. These are not units of energy, but are units of power. ß1 watt (W) = BTU/hour ß1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W ßWatt-hour - Another unit of energy used only to describe electrical energy. Usually we use kilowatt- hour (kW-h) since it is larger. ßquad (Q) - used for describing very large quantities of energy. 1 Q = Btu Energy Units and Use

7 Evaluating Energy Resources ßU.S. has 4.6% of world population and uses 24% of the worlds energy. ß84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas). ß7% from nuclear power. ß9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass).

8 Changes in U.S. Energy Use

9 Energy resources removed from the Earths crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium.

10 Fossil Fuels ßFossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago, and account for about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S. ßThe fossil fuels used in energy generation are: ßNatural gas, which is % methane (CH 4 ) ßLiquid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum ßCoal - a solid mixture of large molecules with a H/C ratio of about 1

11 Problems with Fossil Fuels ßFossil fuels are nonrenewable resources. ßAt projected consumption rates, natural gas and petroleum will be depleted before the end of the 21st century. ßImpurities in fossil fuels are a major source of pollution. ßBurning fossil fuels produce large amounts of CO 2, which contributes to global warming.

12 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

13 Oil ßDeposits of crude oil often are trapped within the earth's crust and can be extracted by drilling a well. ßFossil fuel, produced by the decomposition of deeply buried organic matter from plants and animals. ßCrude oil: complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, with small amounts of S, O, N impurities. ßHow Oil Drilling Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D. – read the entire article on Oil Drilling Works

14 Sources of Oil Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – 13 countries have 67% world reserves: Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, & Venezuela Other important producers: Alaska, Siberia, & Mexico.


16 Oil in U.S. 2.3% of world reserves. Uses nearly 30% of world reserves. 65% for transportation. Increasing dependence on imports.


18 Low oil prices have stimulated economic growth, they have discouraged/prevented improvements in energy efficiency and alternative technologies favoring renewable resources.

19 Burning any fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus promotes global warming. Comparison of CO 2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power.


21 Oil ßCrude oil is transported to a refinery where distillation produces petrochemicals. ßHow Oil Refining WorksHow Oil Refining Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.



24 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

25 Natural Gas - Fossil Fuel Mixture 50–90% Methane (CH 4 ) Ethane (C 2 H 6 ) Propane (C 3 H 8 ) Butane (C 4 H 10 ) Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S)

26 Sources of Natural Gas Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply. Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%). 90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000 miles of pipeline).

27 billion cubic meters


29 Natural Gas ßExperts predict increased use of natural gas during this century.


31 Natural Gas ßWhen a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). ßThe rest of the gas (mostly methane) is dried, cleaned, and pumped into pressurized pipelines for distribution. ßLiquefied natural gas (LNG) can be shipped in refrigerated tanker ships.


33 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

34 Coal: Supply and Demand ßCoal exists in many forms therefore a chemical formula cannot be written for it. ßCoalification: After plants died they underwent chemical decay to form a product known as peat. ßOver many years, thick peat layers formed. ßPeat is converted to coal by geological events such as land subsidence which subject the peat to great pressures and temperatures.



37 Ranks of Coal ßAnthracite : A hard, black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb. ßBituminous: Most common coal and is dense and black (often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb. ßSubbituminous: Black lignite and is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is 8,300 BTU/lb. ßLignite: A brownish-black coal of low quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high inherent moisture and volatile matter. Energy content is lower than 4,000 BTU/lb.



40 Main Coal Deposits Bituminous Anthracite Subbituminous Lignite


42 Advantages and Disadvantages Pros Most abundant fossil fuel. Major U.S. reserves. 300 years at current consumption rates. High net energy yield. Cons Dirtiest fuel, highest carbon dioxide. Major environmental degradation. Major threat to health. © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

43 Sulfur in Coal ßWhen coal is burned, sulfur is released primarily as sulfur dioxide (SO 2 - serious pollutant). ßCoal Cleaning - Methods of removing sulfur from coal include cleaning, solvent refining, gasification, and liquefaction. Scrubbers are used to trap SO 2 when coal is burned. ßTwo chief forms of sulfur are inorganic (FeS 2 or CaSO 4 ) and organic (Sulfur bound to Carbon).

44 Coal Coal gasification Synthetic natural gas (SNG) Coal liquefaction Liquid fuels Disadvantage Costly High Environmental Impact

45 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

46 Nuclear Energy In a conventional nuclear power plant: a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction heats water produces high-pressure steam that turns turbines generates electricity.

47 Nuclear Energy Controlled Fission Chain Reaction Neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as of Uranium or Plutonium Release energy (heat)

48 Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction


50 Radioactive decay continues until the the original isotope is changed into a stable isotope that is not radioactive. Radioactivity: Nuclear changes in which unstable (radioactive) isotopes emit particles & energy. Radioactivity

51 Types Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and therefore are positively charged Beta particles are negatively charged (electrons) Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays) Sources of natural radiation Soil Rocks Air Water Cosmic rays Radioactivity

52 Relative Doses from Radiation Sources

53 The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope. Half-timeemitted Uranium million yrsalpha, gamma Plutonium yrsalpha, gamma During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Half-Life

54 Diagram of Radioactive Decay

55 Genetic Damages: from mutations that alter genes. Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generation. Somatic Damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages, and cancers. Effects of Radiation


57 1. 1.Low-level radiation (Gives off low amount of radiation.) Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals, and universities most was dumped into the ocean. Today deposited into landfills High-level radiation (Gives off large amount of radiation.) Fuel rods from nuclear power plants. Half-time of Plutonium 239 is 24,000 years. No agreement about a safe method of storage. Radioactive Waste

58 1. Bury it deep underground. Problems: i.e., earthquake, groundwater… 2. Shoot it into space or into the sun. Problems: costs, accident would affect large area. 3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet. Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming. 4. Most likely plan for the US. Bury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of Nevada. Cost of over $ 50 billion. 160 miles from Las Vegas. Transportation across the country via train & truck.

59 Yucca Mountain EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

60 Plutonium Breeding ß 238 U is the most plentiful isotope of Uranium. ßNon-fissionable - useless as fuel. ßReactors can be designed to convert 238 U into a fissionable isotope of plutonium, 239 Pu.

61 Conversion of 238 U to 239 Pu breed Under appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breed" more fuel, from otherwise non- fissionable isotopes, than they consume. EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

62 Reprocess Nuclear Fuel ßDuring the operation of a nuclear reactor the uranium runs out. ßAccumulating fission products hinder the proper function of a nuclear reactor. ßFuel needs to be (partly) renewed every year.

63 Plutonium in Spent Fuel ßSpent nuclear fuel contains many newly formed plutonium atoms. ßMiss out on the opportunity to split. ßPlutonium in nuclear waste can be separated from fission products and uranium. ßCleaned Plutonium can be used in a different Nuclear Reactor.


65 Nuclear Energy Concerns about the safety, cost, and liability have slowed the growth of the nuclear power industry. Accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island showed that a partial or complete meltdown is possible.

66 Nuclear Power Plants in U.S.

67 Three Mile Island March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA, lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown. 50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area. Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released. Partial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billion. Released radiation increased cancer rates.


69 Chernobyl April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphere.atmosphere Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths. Green Peace estimates32,000 deaths. About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes. ~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated. > Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity. Cost of incident > $358 billion.



72 Nuclear Energy Nuclear plants must be decommissioned after years. New reactor designs are still proposed. Experimental breeder nuclear fission reactors have proven too costly to build and operate. Attempts to produce electricity by nuclear fusion have been unsuccessful.

73 Use of Nuclear Energy U.S. phasing out. Some countries (France, Japan) investing is increasing. U.S. currently ~7% of energy is nuclear. No new U.S. power plants ordered since % of 105 commercial nuclear power plants expected to be retired by 2015 and all by North Korea is getting new plants from the US. France has 78% of energy from nuclear.

74 Phasing Out Nuclear Power Multi-billion-$$ construction costs High operation costs Frequent malfunctions False assurances and cover–ups Overproduction of energy in some areas Poor management Lack of public acceptance

75 Energy Energy & Mineral resources

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