Presentation on theme: "Advanced Placement Environmental Science"— Presentation transcript:
1Advanced Placement Environmental Science Nonrenewable EnergyAdvanced Placement Environmental ScienceSpecial Credits to Dr. Mark Ewoldsen, La Canada High School
2Questions to Ponder Name the non-renewable energy sources. 2. How are these energy sources obtained from the environment?3. What effect do these methods have on the environment?
3Answers 1. Coal, Oil, Natural Gas and Nuclear 2. Oil – Oil rigs requires drilling into landNatural Gas – FrackingCoalNuclear Energy
4Answers 3. Clear cutting forests Dry- Lake Sedimentation in lakes Release toxic materials into environment suchas cyanide, mercury, sulfur, excess CO2, Noxand SoxMountain top mining
51. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy
6Energy SourcesModern society requires large quantities of energy that are generated from the earth’s natural resources.Primary Energy Resources: The fossil fuels(oil, gas, and coal), nuclear energy, falling water, geothermal, and solar energy.Secondary Energy Resources: Those sources which are derived from primary resources such as electricity, fuels from coal, (synthetic natural gas and synthetic gasoline), as well as alcohol fuels.
7ThermodynamicsThe laws of thermodynamics tell us two things about converting heat energy from steam to work:1) The conversion of heat to work cannot be 100 % efficient because a portion of the heat is wasted.2) The efficiency of converting heat to work increases as the heat temperature increases.
8Law of Conservation of Matter Under ordinary circumstances, matter is neither created nor destroyed. It is recycled endlessly.Matter is transformed and combined in different ways, but it doesn’t disappear. Everything goes somewhere.Same as First Law of Thermodynamics.
9Law of Conservation of Matter Ex1: Electrical Energyto kinetic energyEx2: Electrical energyto Light to Heat energy
10Second Law of Thermodynamics In any energy conversion, some of the usable energy is always lost as heat.Recognizes the principle of ENTROPY, the tendency of all natural systems to move towards a state of increasing disorder.
14Energy Units and UseBtu (British thermal unit) - amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1 ºF.cal (calorie) - the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ºC. Commonly, kilocalorie (kcal) is used.1 Btu = 252 cal = kcal1 Btu = 1055 J (joule) = kJ1 cal = J and 1 Joule=.2390 cal
15Energy Units and UseTwo other units that are often seen are the horsepower and the watt. These are not units of energy, but are units of power.1 watt (W) = Btu / hour1 horsepower (hp) = 746 WWatt-hour - Another unit of energy used only to describe electrical energy. Usually we use kilowatt-hour (kW-h) since it is larger.quad (Q) - used for describing very large quantities of energy. 1 Q = 1015 Btu
16Energy Consumption-Power Power consumed by household needs such as:Refrigeration, television, radio,hair dryer, washer and dryer, lights, etc.Total Kilowatts hour = use of kw x Time Used1Kilowatt hours = 1000 watt hoursBurning a 100 Watt light bulb for 10 hours uses 1 kwh of electricity.EX: Running a 5000 watt (5KW) hair dryer for 2 hours uses 10 kw hours.
17Evaluating Energy Resources U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy;84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas);7% from nuclear power;9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass).
19Energy resources removed from the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium
20Fossil FuelsFossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago, and account for about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S.The fossil fuels used in energy generation are:Natural gas, which is % methane (CH4)Liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleumCoal - a solid mixture of large molecules with a H/C ratio of about 1
21Problems with Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resourcesAt projected consumption rates, natural gas and petroleum will be depleted before the end of the 21st centuryBurning fossil fuels produce large amounts of CO2, Methane, Mercury,Nitrous oxide and sulfur which contributes to global warming and acid rain.
222. Oil 1. Energy Resources 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy
23OilDeposits of crude oil often are trapped within the earth's crust and can be extracted by drilling a wellFossil fuel, produced by the decomposition of deeply buried organic matter from plants & animalsCrude oil: complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, with small amounts of S, O, N impuritiesHow Oil Drilling Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.
24Sources of OilOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) countries have 67% world reserves:Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, & VenezuelaOther important producers: Alaska, Siberia, & Mexico.
29Low oil prices have stimulated economic growth, they have discouraged / prevented improvements in energy efficiency and alternative technologies favoring renewable resources.c101/Chapter14&15.ppt
30Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power. Burning any fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus promotes global warming.Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power.
34Fractional Distillation – processing of oil Fractional distillation is…Crude oil has different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation.
39Sources of Natural GasRussia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply.Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%);90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000 miles of pipeline).
44Natural GasWhen a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)The rest of the gas (mostly methane) is dried, cleaned, and pumped into pressurized pipelines for distributionLiquefied natural gas (LNG) can be shipped in refrigerated tanker ships
464. Coal 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 5. Nuclear Energy
47Coal: Supply and Demand Coal exists in many forms therefore a chemical formula cannot be written for it.Coalification: After plants died they underwent chemical decay to form a product known as peatOver many years, thick peat layers formed.Peat is converted to coal by geological events such as land subsidence which subject the peat to great pressures and temperatures.
50Ranks of CoalLignite: A brownish-black coal of low quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high inherent moisture and volatile matter. Energy content is lower 4000 BTU/lb.Subbituminous: Black lignite, is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is 8,300 BTU/lb.Bituminous: most common coal is dense and black (often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb.Anthracite :A hard, black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb.Powerpoint%5CCoal.ppt
75Sulfur in CoalWhen coal is burned, sulfur is released primarily as sulfur dioxide (SO2 - serious pollutant)Coal Cleaning - Methods of removing sulfur from coal include cleaning, solvent refining, gasification, and liquefaction Scrubbers are used to trap SO2 when coal is burnedTwo chief forms of sulfur is inorganic (FeS2 or CaSO4) and organic (Sulfur bound to C)
76Acid Mine DrainageThe impact of mine drainage on a lake after receiving effluent from an abandoned tailings impoundment for over 50 years
77Relatively fresh tailings in an impoundment. The same tailings impoundment after 7 years of sulfide oxidation. The white spots in Figures A and B are gulls.
78Mine effluent discharging from the bottom of a waste rock pile
79Shoreline of a pond receiving AMD showing massive accumulation of iron hydroxides on the pond bottom
80Groundwater flow through a tailings impoundment and discharging into lakes or streams.
815. Nuclear Energy 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal
82Nuclear Energy In a conventional nuclear power plant a controlled nuclear fission chain reactionheats waterproduce high-pressure steamthat turns turbinesgenerates electricity.
83Nuclear Energy Controlled Fission Chain Reaction neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as of Uranium or Plutoniumrelease energy (heat)
86RadioactivityRadioactive decay continues until the the original isotope is changed into a stable isotope that is not radioactiveRadioactivity: Nuclear changes in which unstable (radioactive) isotopes emit particles & energy
87Radioactivity Types Sources of natural radiation Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and therefore are positively chargedBeta particles are negatively charged (electrons)Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays)Sources of natural radiationSoilRocksAirWaterCosmic rays
88Relative Doses from Radiation Sources cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
89Half-LifeThe time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotopeHalf-time emittedUranium million yrs alpha, gammaPlutonium yrs alpha, gammaDuring operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years
90Diagram of Radioactive Decay cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
91Effects of Radiation Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generationSomatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers
93Radioactive Waste1. Low-level radiation (Gives of low amount of radiation)Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals & universities1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the oceanToday deposit into landfills2. High-level radiation (Gives of large amount of radiation)Fuel rods from nuclear power plantsHalf-time of Plutonium 239 is yearsNo agreement about a safe method of storage
94Radioactive Waste 1. Bury it deep underground. Problems: i.e. earthquake, groundwater…2. Shoot it into space or into the sun.Problems: costs, accident would affect large area.3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet.Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming4. Most likely plan for the USBury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of NevadaCost of over $ 50 billion160 miles from Las VegasTransportation across the country via train & truck
96Plutonium Breeding 238U is the most plentiful isotope of Uranium Non-fissionable - useless as fuelReactors can be designed to convert 238U into a fissionable isotope of plutonium, 239PuEVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
97Conversion of 238U to 239PuUnder appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breed" more fuel, from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes, than they consumeSource:EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
98Reprocess Nuclear Fuel During the operation of a nuclear reactor the uranium runs outAccumulating fission products hinder the proper function of a nuclear reactorFuel needs to be (partly) renewed every yearSource:EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
99Plutonium in Spent Fuel Spent nuclear fuel contains many newly formed plutonium atomsMiss out on the opportunity to splitPlutonium in nuclear waste can be separated from fission products and uraniumCleaned Plutonium can be used in a different Nuclear ReactorSource:EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt
101Nuclear EnergyConcerns about the safety, cost, and liability have slowed the growth of the nuclear power industryAccidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island showed that a partial or complete meltdown is possible
102Nuclear Power Plants in U.S. cstl-cst.semo.edu/bornstein/BS105/ Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt
103Three Mile IslandMarch 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled areaUnknown amounts of radioactive materials releasedPartial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billionReleased radiation increased cancer rates.
105ChernobylApril 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphereHealth ministry reported 3,576 deathsGreen Peace estimates32,000 deaths;About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated> Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivityCost of incident > $358 billion
108Nuclear Energy Nuclear plants must be decommissioned after 15-40 years New reactor designs are still proposedExperimental breeder nuclear fission reactors have proven too costly to build and operateAttempts to produce electricity by nuclear fusion have been unsuccessful
109Use of Nuclear Energy U.S. phasing out Some countries (France, Japan) investing increasinglyU.S. currently ~7% of energy nuclearNo new U.S. power plants ordered since 197840% of 105 commercial nuclear power expected to be retired by 2015 and all by 2030North Korea is getting new plants from the USFrance 78% energy nuclear
110Phasing Out Nuclear Power Multi-billion-$$ construction costsHigh operation costsFrequent malfunctionsFalse assurances and cover–upsOverproduction of energy in some areasPoor managementLack of public acceptance
1112) Energy Energy & Mineral resources garnero101.asu.edu/glg101/Lectures/L37.ppt