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Advanced Placement Environmental Science

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1 Advanced Placement Environmental Science
Nonrenewable Energy Advanced Placement Environmental Science Special Credits to Dr. Mark Ewoldsen, La Canada High School

2 Questions to Ponder Name the non-renewable energy sources.
2. How are these energy sources obtained from the environment? 3. What effect do these methods have on the environment?

3 Answers 1. Coal, Oil, Natural Gas and Nuclear
2. Oil – Oil rigs requires drilling into land Natural Gas – Fracking Coal Nuclear Energy

4 Answers 3. Clear cutting forests Dry- Lake Sedimentation in lakes
Release toxic materials into environment such as cyanide, mercury, sulfur, excess CO2, Nox and Sox Mountain top mining

5 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

6 Energy Sources Modern society requires large quantities of energy that are generated from the earth’s natural resources. Primary Energy Resources: The fossil fuels(oil, gas, and coal), nuclear energy, falling water, geothermal, and solar energy. Secondary Energy Resources: Those sources which are derived from primary resources such as electricity, fuels from coal, (synthetic natural gas and synthetic gasoline), as well as alcohol fuels.

7 Thermodynamics The laws of thermodynamics tell us two things about converting heat energy from steam to work: 1) The conversion of heat to work cannot be 100 % efficient because a portion of the heat is wasted. 2) The efficiency of converting heat to work increases as the heat temperature increases.

8 Law of Conservation of Matter
Under ordinary circumstances, matter is neither created nor destroyed. It is recycled endlessly. Matter is transformed and combined in different ways, but it doesn’t disappear. Everything goes somewhere. Same as First Law of Thermodynamics.

9 Law of Conservation of Matter
Ex1: Electrical Energy to kinetic energy Ex2: Electrical energy to Light to Heat energy

10 Second Law of Thermodynamics
In any energy conversion, some of the usable energy is always lost as heat. Recognizes the principle of ENTROPY, the tendency of all natural systems to move towards a state of increasing disorder.

11 Second Law of Thermodynamics

12 Entropy…you say… Entropy = measure of disorder in a energy system. Example: Without heat energy inputs, everything goes in one direction only…this is BORING!!! How does entropy work?

13 Entropy-Global Warming

14 Energy Units and Use Btu (British thermal unit) - amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water by 1 ºF. cal (calorie) - the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 ºC. Commonly, kilocalorie (kcal) is used. 1 Btu = 252 cal = kcal 1 Btu = 1055 J (joule) = kJ 1 cal = J and 1 Joule=.2390 cal

15 Energy Units and Use Two other units that are often seen are the horsepower and the watt. These are not units of energy, but are units of power. 1 watt (W) = Btu / hour 1 horsepower (hp) = 746 W Watt-hour - Another unit of energy used only to describe electrical energy. Usually we use kilowatt-hour (kW-h) since it is larger. quad (Q) - used for describing very large quantities of energy. 1 Q = 1015 Btu

16 Energy Consumption-Power
Power consumed by household needs such as: Refrigeration, television, radio,hair dryer, washer and dryer, lights, etc. Total Kilowatts hour = use of kw x Time Used 1Kilowatt hours = 1000 watt hours Burning a 100 Watt light bulb for 10 hours uses 1 kwh of electricity. EX: Running a 5000 watt (5KW) hair dryer for 2 hours uses 10 kw hours.

17 Evaluating Energy Resources
U.S. has 4.6% of world population; uses 24% of the world’s energy; 84% from nonrenewable fossil fuels (oil, coal, & natural gas); 7% from nuclear power; 9% from renewable sources (hydropower, geothermal, solar, biomass).

18 Changes in U.S. Energy Use

19 Energy resources removed from the earth’s crust include: oil, natural gas, coal, and uranium

20 Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels originated from the decay of living organisms millions of years ago, and account for about 80% of the energy generated in the U.S. The fossil fuels used in energy generation are: Natural gas, which is % methane (CH4) Liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum Coal - a solid mixture of large molecules with a H/C ratio of about 1

21 Problems with Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources At projected consumption rates, natural gas and petroleum will be depleted before the end of the 21st century Burning fossil fuels produce large amounts of CO2, Methane, Mercury,Nitrous oxide and sulfur which contributes to global warming and acid rain.

22 2. Oil 1. Energy Resources 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

23 Oil Deposits of crude oil often are trapped within the earth's crust and can be extracted by drilling a well Fossil fuel, produced by the decomposition of deeply buried organic matter from plants & animals Crude oil: complex liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, with small amounts of S, O, N impurities How Oil Drilling Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.

24 Sources of Oil Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) countries have 67% world reserves: Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, & Venezuela Other important producers: Alaska, Siberia, & Mexico.

25 Oil Spills Exxon Valdez
Gulf Oil Spill


27 Oil in U.S. 2.3% of world reserves uses nearly 30% of world reserves;
65% for transportation; increasing dependence on imports.


29 Low oil prices have stimulated economic growth, they have discouraged / prevented improvements in energy efficiency and alternative technologies favoring renewable resources. c101/Chapter14&15.ppt

30 Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power.
Burning any fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thus promotes global warming. Comparison of CO2 emitted by fossil fuels and nuclear power.


32 Oil Crude oil is transported to a refinery where distillation produces petrochemicals How Oil Refining Works by Craig C. Freudenrich, Ph.D.


34 Fractional Distillation – processing of oil
Fractional distillation is… Crude oil has different sizes, weights and boiling temperatures; so, the first step is to separate these components. Because they have different boiling temperatures, they can be separated easily by a process called fractional distillation.


36 +300°C

37 3. Natural Gas 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 4. Coal 5. Nuclear Energy

38 Natural Gas - Fossil Fuel
Mixture 50–90% Methane (CH4) Ethane (C2H6) Propane (C3H8) Butane (C4H10) Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

39 Sources of Natural Gas Russia & Kazakhstan - almost 40% of world's supply. Iran (15%), Qatar (5%), Saudi Arabia (4%), Algeria (4%), United States (3%), Nigeria (3%), Venezuela (3%); 90–95% of natural gas in U.S. domestic (~411,000 km = 255,000 miles of pipeline).

40 billion cubic metres


42 Natural Gas Experts predict increased use of natural gas during this century


44 Natural Gas When a natural gas field is tapped, propane and butane are liquefied and removed as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) The rest of the gas (mostly methane) is dried, cleaned, and pumped into pressurized pipelines for distribution Liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be shipped in refrigerated tanker ships


46 4. Coal 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 5. Nuclear Energy

47 Coal: Supply and Demand
Coal exists in many forms therefore a chemical formula cannot be written for it. Coalification: After plants died they underwent chemical decay to form a product known as peat Over many years, thick peat layers formed. Peat is converted to coal by geological events such as land subsidence which subject the peat to great pressures and temperatures.



50 Ranks of Coal Lignite: A brownish-black coal of low quality (i.e., low heat content per unit) with high inherent moisture and volatile matter. Energy content is lower 4000 BTU/lb. Subbituminous: Black lignite, is dull black and generally contains 20 to 30 percent moisture Energy content is 8,300 BTU/lb. Bituminous: most common coal is dense and black (often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material). Its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent. Energy content about 10,500 Btu / lb. Anthracite :A hard, black lustrous coal, often referred to as hard coal, containing a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. Energy content of about 14,000 Btu/lb. Powerpoint%5CCoal.ppt



53 Main Coal Deposits-US Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite

54 Advantages and Disadvantages
Pros Most abundant fossil fuel Major U.S. reserves 300 yrs. at current consumption rates High net energy yield Cons Dirtiest fuel, highest carbon dioxide Major environmental degradation Major threat to health © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

55 Coal Coal gasification ® Synthetic natural gas (SNG)
Coal liquefaction ® Liquid fuels Disadvantage Costly High environmental impact (Nox & SOx)
















71 Mountain Top Removal – Surface coal mining
Record the consequences you view from this video.




75 Sulfur in Coal When coal is burned, sulfur is released primarily as sulfur dioxide (SO2 - serious pollutant) Coal Cleaning - Methods of removing sulfur from coal include cleaning, solvent refining, gasification, and liquefaction Scrubbers are used to trap SO2 when coal is burned Two chief forms of sulfur is inorganic (FeS2 or CaSO4) and organic (Sulfur bound to C)

76 Acid Mine Drainage The impact of mine drainage on a lake after receiving effluent from an abandoned tailings impoundment for over 50 years

77 Relatively fresh tailings in an impoundment.
The same tailings impoundment after 7 years of sulfide oxidation. The white spots in Figures A and B are gulls.

78 Mine effluent discharging from the bottom of a waste rock pile

79 Shoreline of a pond receiving AMD showing massive accumulation of iron hydroxides on the pond bottom

80 Groundwater flow through a tailings impoundment and discharging into lakes or streams.

81 5. Nuclear Energy 1. Energy Resources 2. Oil 3. Natural Gas 4. Coal

82 Nuclear Energy In a conventional nuclear power plant
a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction heats water produce high-pressure steam that turns turbines generates electricity.

83 Nuclear Energy Controlled Fission Chain Reaction
neutrons split the nuclei of atoms such as of Uranium or Plutonium release energy (heat)

84 Controlled Nuclear Fission Reaction Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt


86 Radioactivity Radioactive decay continues until the the original isotope is changed into a stable isotope that is not radioactive Radioactivity: Nuclear changes in which unstable (radioactive) isotopes emit particles & energy

87 Radioactivity Types Sources of natural radiation
Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, and therefore are positively charged Beta particles are negatively charged (electrons) Gamma rays have no mass or charge, but are a form of electromagnetic radiation (similar to X-rays) Sources of natural radiation Soil Rocks Air Water Cosmic rays

88 Relative Doses from Radiation Sources Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt

89 Half-Life The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope Half-time emitted Uranium million yrs alpha, gamma Plutonium yrs alpha, gamma During operation, nuclear power plants produce radioactive wastes, including some that remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years

90 Diagram of Radioactive Decay Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt

91 Effects of Radiation Genetic damages: from mutations that alter genes
Genetic defects can become apparent in the next generation Somatic damages: to tissue, such as burns, miscarriages & cancers

92 EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

93 Radioactive Waste 1. Low-level radiation (Gives of low amount of radiation) Sources: nuclear power plants, hospitals & universities 1940 – 1970 most was dumped into the ocean Today deposit into landfills 2. High-level radiation (Gives of large amount of radiation) Fuel rods from nuclear power plants Half-time of Plutonium 239 is years No agreement about a safe method of storage

94 Radioactive Waste 1. Bury it deep underground.
Problems: i.e. earthquake, groundwater… 2. Shoot it into space or into the sun. Problems: costs, accident would affect large area. 3. Bury it under the Antarctic ice sheet. Problems: long-term stability of ice is not known, global warming 4. Most likely plan for the US Bury it into Yucca Mountain in desert of Nevada Cost of over $ 50 billion 160 miles from Las Vegas Transportation across the country via train & truck

95 Yucca Mountain EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

96 Plutonium Breeding 238U is the most plentiful isotope of Uranium
Non-fissionable - useless as fuel Reactors can be designed to convert 238U into a fissionable isotope of plutonium, 239Pu EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

97 Conversion of 238U to 239Pu Under appropriate operating conditions, the neutrons given off by fission reactions can "breed" more fuel, from otherwise non-fissionable isotopes, than they consume Source: EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

98 Reprocess Nuclear Fuel
During the operation of a nuclear reactor the uranium runs out Accumulating fission products hinder the proper function of a nuclear reactor Fuel needs to be (partly) renewed every year Source: EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt

99 Plutonium in Spent Fuel
Spent nuclear fuel contains many newly formed plutonium atoms Miss out on the opportunity to split Plutonium in nuclear waste can be separated from fission products and uranium Cleaned Plutonium can be used in a different Nuclear Reactor Source: EVR3019/Nuclear_Waste.ppt


101 Nuclear Energy Concerns about the safety, cost, and liability have slowed the growth of the nuclear power industry Accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island showed that a partial or complete meltdown is possible

102 Nuclear Power Plants in U.S. Energy%20Use%20-%203.ppt

103 Three Mile Island March 29, 1979, a reactor near Harrisburg, PA lost coolant water because of mechanical and human errors and suffered a partial meltdown 50,000 people evacuated & another 50,000 fled area Unknown amounts of radioactive materials released Partial cleanup & damages cost $1.2 billion Released radiation increased cancer rates.


105 Chernobyl April 26, 1986, reactor explosion (Ukraine) flung radioactive debris into atmosphere Health ministry reported 3,576 deaths Green Peace estimates32,000 deaths; About 400,000 people were forced to leave their homes ~160,000 sq km (62,00 sq mi) contaminated > Half million people exposed to dangerous levels of radioactivity Cost of incident > $358 billion



108 Nuclear Energy Nuclear plants must be decommissioned after 15-40 years
New reactor designs are still proposed Experimental breeder nuclear fission reactors have proven too costly to build and operate Attempts to produce electricity by nuclear fusion have been unsuccessful

109 Use of Nuclear Energy U.S. phasing out
Some countries (France, Japan) investing increasingly U.S. currently ~7% of energy nuclear No new U.S. power plants ordered since 1978 40% of 105 commercial nuclear power expected to be retired by 2015 and all by 2030 North Korea is getting new plants from the US France 78% energy nuclear

110 Phasing Out Nuclear Power
Multi-billion-$$ construction costs High operation costs Frequent malfunctions False assurances and cover–ups Overproduction of energy in some areas Poor management Lack of public acceptance

111 2) Energy Energy & Mineral resources

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