Presentation on theme: "The Washington Naval Conference ALSO KNOWN AS THE WASHINGTON ARMS CONFERENCE ALYSON CHWATEK."— Presentation transcript:
The Washington Naval Conference ALSO KNOWN AS THE WASHINGTON ARMS CONFERENCE ALYSON CHWATEK
12 November February 1922
Involved: Britain The United States France Japan Italy Belgium China Portugal The Netherlands …But not Russia
Conference was called to order by President Warren G. Harding of the United States LET’S WORK THIS OUT
The FIRST international conference held in the United States, is considered to be a model for successful treaty making! Also… the FIRST disarmament conference in HISTORY DID YOU KNOW..?!?!?! MEMORIAL CONTINENT AL HALL : WHERE TREATY WAS MADE
#1: 4 power treaty #2: 5 power treaty #3: 9 power treaty Resulted in THREE major treaties! Along with other smaller ones, but these are the most recognizable.
“ Let us never negotiate out of fear. But, let us never fear to negotiate.” -John F. Kennedy
INSIDE PEAK AT THE WASHINGTON CONFERENCE..
ObJeCtIvEs Of tHe TrEaTy American Secretary of State, Charles Evans Hughs, wanted to prevent the Japanese navy from expanding into western Pacific waters, especially because there were valuable islands in which naval bases could be set up. Intimidating Japanese Naval ship
The Four Power Treaty, what was it all about? In this treaty, all the parties involved in the treaty agreed to maintain “status quo” in the Pacific. The parties agreed to not try and expand into the Pacific, and that if some sort of problem was to arise, that they would all mutually try and work it out. THERE IS NO “i” in TEAM! Another effect of this treaty was the ending of the Anglo-Japanese alliance of The Anglo-Japanese alliance was an alliance between Japan and Britain. It contained six articles in which the countries decided how they would help each other in times of war and such. When Japan entered the Washington Conference it felt that Britain did not have its best interests in mind, and therefore leaned towards ending the alliance. There was much mistrust between Japan and Britain, and this mistrust and the way that the alliance was ended can be looked at as precursors to Japan’s involvement in WWII.
What on earth was the Five Power Treaty all about then? In this treaty, the United States, France, Britain, Japan, and Italy all decided upon the limitations to naval armaments. -The British Navy was allowed 525,000 tons of Capital ships and 135,000 tons of aircraft carriers. -The United States was allowed the same ratio that Britain was. -Japan was allowed 315,000 tons of Capital ships and 81,000 tons of aircraft carriers. -France was allowed 175,000 tons of Capital ships and 60,000 tons of aircraft carriers. -Italy was allowed the same ratio that France was. 5:5:3 ratio, The Japanese Felt insulted
The NINE POWER TREATY This treaty affirmed the Open Door Policy in China. All nations would have equal boundaries and trade rights in their spheres of influence in China. China was to maintain her integrity. The nine nations were, the United States, France, Britain, Italy, Japan, China, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal.
Now, what did the United States desire out of these treaties? Well first of all the U.S. wanted : 1.To relieve Anglo-American tension by ending the Anglo-Japanese alliance. 2.To agree on a naval ratio between the U.S. and Japan AND Britain 3.And lastly, to have the Japanese agree to continue the Open-Door Policy in CHINA
United States Motives Cont.. Why did the United States want Japan to stay out of the Pacific? SO THE UNITED STATES WOULD HAVE NO COMPETITION! To ensure the success of the treaty, the United States offered to get rid of almost thirty capital ships and take a ten year break on the construction of them. They meant business.
Well what about Britain? What did she want? Britain naturally desired most of the same things that the United States did, but they did not approach it in the same manner. While the United States went into the treaty seeking several specific agreements, Britain was more open- minded and open to negotiation as long as the Pacific looked something like it wanted it to.
WHAT ABOUT JAPAN!?!?! Japan first of all desired to form some sort of naval treaty with the United States AND Britain. On top of forming a naval treaty, Japan wanted the world to recognize officially its interests in Manchuria and Mongolia. Lastly, Japan wanted to continue to hold power over Yap, Siberia, and Tsingtao.
“He who has learned to disagree without being disagreeable has discovered the most valuable secret of a diplomat.” - Robert Estabrook
Japan felt that decreasing its naval force would leave it venerable due to the fact that there was tension between her and Asia (China). The United States and Britain wished to continue to have naval supremacy over Japan so they urged Japan to believe that her national safety was not as risk, and that if it was the League of Nations would take care of it.
HOW DID THE TREATY COME TO BE? HOW DID THE UNITED STATES GET WHAT IT WANTED? Well to start, the United States was sneaky. But not sneaky in a bad way- The government intercepted a message from the Japanese government to its delegation in which it described the lowest naval ratio it would accept. The United States then used this information to manipulate the Japanese during the formation of the treaty. THEY SPIED!!!!!!!!!!!
TAKE A QUICK LOOK AT THE TREATY.. Article 19 follows
The United States, the British Empire, and Japan agree that the status quo at the time of the signing of the present Treaty, with regard to fortifications and naval bases, shall be maintained in their respective territories and possessions specified hereunder: (1) The insular possessions which the United States now holds or may hereafter acquire in the Pacific Ocean, except (a) those adjacent to the coast of the United States, Alaska, and the Panama Canal Zone, not including the Aleutian Islands, and (b) the Hawaiian Islands; (2) Hong Kong and the insular possessions which the British Empire now holds or may hereafter Acquire in the Pacific Ocean, east of meridian 1100 east longitude, except (a) those adjacent to the coast of Canada, (b) the Commonwealth of Australia and its Territories, and (c) New Zealand; (3) The following insular territories and possessions of Japan in the Pacific Ocean, to wit: the Kurile Islands, the Bonin Islands, Amami- Oshima, the Loochoo Islands, Formosa, and the Pescadores, and any insular territories or possessions in the Pacific Ocean which Japan may hereafter acquire(22). _war/washington_edsessay.htm
FURTHER FUN FACTS “Ibid., pp In monetary terms, Hughes' announcement meant that the United States was willing to sacrifice approximately $350,000,000 already invested in a shipbuilding program designed to make the American navy the dominate naval force in the world. For the U.S. naval construction program on 1916, see Ernest Andrade, Jr., "The United States Navy and the Washington Conference," in The Historian XXXI (1969), pp ” Wittenberg, Edward. "Far Eastern Strategy and The Washington Conference of " Microworks.net. Microworks. Web. 12 May “The Nine-Power Treaty was designed to prevent exploitation of Chinese sovereignty by providing equal access to Chinese markets and offering favoritism to none. This "Open Door" policy also had the goal of allowing China to develop a stable government without outside interference. Charles I. Beavens, LL.B., Treaties and Other International Agreements of the United States of America, , Vol 2. (Washington: Department of State, 1969), pp ”
Success? Yes! The Washington Conference succeeded in controlling the amount of battle fleets and ships that were produced. It prevented new fleets from forming and put limitations on the pre-existing ones. -In 1922 ratifications were made in Beijing. -In 1922, Japan gave Shangdong back to China. -In 1923 the treaty was ratified -by the United States. -In 1924 it was registered in the League of Nations. -It was officially registered as part of the League of Nation’s Treaty series.