Presentation on theme: "Defending What We Believe!"— Presentation transcript:
1Defending What We Believe! Grace and Truth Bible Study – October 2009
2Is the Bible True? Can we Trust it? Paul was dealing with this kind of questioning:Galatians: The people that he recently visited and taught the gospel message of the Grace of God through Christ’s Life, Death and Resurrection, were turning away from the message they had accepted.Paul quickly pens a message of truth back, defending the very Word of God!Can We Defend the Word of God?
3How Do we Know Anything is True? How Do we know that the Declaration of Independence truly represented our Forefathers intentions?
4What Do We Believe?II Timothy 3:15-17: “15and how from infancy you have known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus. 16All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, 17so that the man of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.”
53 Key Principles to Stand All Scripture:66 Books of the Bible39 Old, 27 NewChrist is the Central Theme of All ScriptureAll Scripture is influenced directly by God Himself
639 Old Testament BooksThe overall Hebrew breakdown of the Old Testament books is in three major categories:1The Law (Torah): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and DeuteronomyThe Prophets (Nebhim):Early prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and KingsLater prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve (minor Prophets)The Psalms/Writings (Kethubhim):Poetic books: Psalms, Proverbs, and JobFive Rolls: Songs of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Esther, and EcclesiastesHistorical books: Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles1Josh McDowell, A Ready Defense (Nashville, Tennessee: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1993), p. 35.
7OT Confirmed Historical Writers Confirmed the Biblical Division The Dead Sea Scrolls show us what books of the Old Testament were recognized as sacred in the period between the Old and New Testaments.“the scrolls give positive evidence for the canonicity of all but Chronicles, Ester, and the Song of Solomon.” Charles RyrieHistorical Writers Confirmed the Biblical DivisionPhilo, Josephus, Jamnia39 books easily confirmed by the Church forefathers
8Divisions are Confirmed by Jesus Luke 24:44 Now He said to them, “These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.”
9A to Z Confirmed by Jesus Matthew 23:35 so that upon you may fall the guilt of all the righteous blood shed on earth, from the blood of righteous Abel to the blood of Zechariah, the son of Berechiah, whom you murdered between the temple and the altar.“This is from Genesis to Chronicles—the first and last books in the typical listing of the Hebrew Old Testament that Jesus used.” Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008Jewish Canon = Protestant Bible. Different # of Books but same text (ex. Ezra and Nehemiah combined, 12 minor prophets combined into one)
10Jesus Confirms the Bible Stories The Ark and the Flood (Matt. 24:38-39, Luke 17:26-27)Destruction of Sodom (Matt. 10:15, Luke 17:28-29)Jonah and the Great Fish (Matt. 12:40)Acknowledged Isaiah, Daniel, Abel, Zechariah, David, Moses, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
11Holding to 39 Books Separates Us The Apocrypha (meaning “hidden” or “unknown”)400 years of silence prior to Christ’s entrance into the worldModern Catholic Bibles now contain the Apocrypha—as did the KJV in 1611 A.D. (first edition of the King James Version) and early editions of the Geneva Bible.” Adopted in 1546 by the Roman Catholic Church - Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008Ecclesiasticus (Book of Sirach)1 & 2 EsdrasBaruchLetter of JeremiahAdditions to EstherPrayer of AzariahSuzanna (often inserted as Daniel 13)Bel and the DragonPrayer of ManassehTobitJudithWisdom of Solomon1 & 2 Maccabees
12Aprocrapha is Not Confirmed “Never Classed as Scripture” by Jesus ChristWriters of the New Testament do Not Quote ThemRejected By early Church Forefathers (Melito, Origin, Athanasius, Cyril) and by the translator of the Latin Vulgate in the 5th century, Jerome.Dropped by the early Protestants to eliminate the confusion between “Historical Reference” and “Fully Inspired Scripture.”The Jewish People “Never Classed them as Scripture.”“One such reason is that it never claimed to be Scripture, unlike other books of the Bible that claim such things. Even one of the apocryphal books affirms there was no one speaking on God’s behalf at that time (1 Maccabees 9:27) when it says: “There had not been such great distress in Israel since the time prophets ceased to appear among the people.”” - Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008
13What Does this “Canon” Mean? The word canon comes from the Hebrew word kaneh, which is a rod, and the Greek word kanon, which is a reed. Such a canon was used as a standard for measuring and judging whether or not a measurement was accurate.List of books that met certain tests or rules and thus were considered authoritative and canonical.That means it is the standard of truth by which all other truth is to be judged in the Christian life.Over 3000 books were candidates for inclusion in the New Testament canon alone, and only 27 were selected.NOTE: “In the early church the word “canon” was used to refer to the creeds. In the middle of the fourth century it came to be used of the bible.” (Ryrie)NOTE: Conon was considered completed (Identified) since A.D. 397
1427 New Testament Books Written After Christ Ascended Do We have His Authority on What Should be included?Holy Spirit sent to Remind the Disciples: John 14:26 “But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I said to you.”Disciples would have First Hand Knowledge of ChristDisciples were to “Testify” of what they saw:John 15: “When the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, that is the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father, He will testify about Me, and you will testify also, because you have been with Me from the beginning.”Disciples were called “Messengers” and “Delegates”
16Apostles Confirmed to Speak Christ says Apostles will be sent. Luke 11:48-49 “So you testify that you approve of what your forefathers did; they killed the prophets, and you build their tombs. Because of this, God in his wisdom said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and others they will persecute.’”12 Disciples were Listed as ApostlesSimon PeterAndrew, Peter’s brotherJames, the son of ZebedeeJohn, the son of Zebedee and brother of JamesPhilipBartholomewMatthew, the tax collectorThomasJames, the son of AlphaeusLebbaeus ThaddaeusSimon the CanaaniteJudas Iscariot, who betrayed Christ
17Direct Apostle Writing in the NT 5 – John (Gospel of John, I, II, III John, Revelation)3 – Peter (I&II Peter, Mark*)*Gospel of Mark was written by John Mark, who was under the guidance of Peter.“Papias and Tertullian, both of whom lived early in the second century AD, claimed that Mark wrote his Gospel in partnership with the apostle Peter.8” - Brian Edwards, Nothing But The TruthThere is an Old Testament precedence for this: Jeremiah was written by Baruch his scribe (Jeremiah 36:4-32)1 - Matthew
19Who Else Is an Apostle?Matthias – After Judas Death, other Apostles cast lots to replace him (Acts 1:21-26)Paul – Declared in Scripture (e.g. Acts 14:14; Romans 1:1, 11:13; Corinthians 1:1, 2 Peter 3:14-16) , Selected by Jesus (Acts 9)Barnabas – Acts 14:14 – “But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard this, they tore their clothes and ran in among the multitude, crying out.”James – Galatians 1:19 – “I saw none of the other apostles—only James, the Lord’s brother.”Jesus – Hebrews 3:1 – “Therefore, holy brothers, who share in the heavenly calling, fix your thoughts on Jesus, the apostle and high priest whom we confess.”
20Additional NT Apostle Writings 15 – Paul (Romans, I&II Corinthians, I&II Thessalonians, I&II Timothy, Ephesians, Galatians, Philemon, Titus, Philippians, Colossians, Gospel of Luke*, and Acts*)*Luke and Acts were written by Luke. However, Luke is serving under Paul much like John Mark did under Peter.Philemon 1:24 refers to Luke as a Co-Laborer of Paul“Irenaeus, who was a disciple of the apostle John, said: After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him.9” Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008
21What about Hebrews?Possible Writers include Paul (writing in his native tongue, Luke, Clement, Apollos, Silas, & BarnabasPaul: Skips Pauline Style Introduction. However, Peter writes in II 3:15-16 that Paul wrote to the Hebrews/Jews. Hebrew 13:24 – Possibly came from Italy where Paul was.Luke: Hebrews 2:3 would indicate the writer did not have direct contact to the Lord.“However, since the authors speak of direct contact with an apostle regarding salvation as it had been confirmed to them, then it was indeed under the supervision of an apostle (likely Paul). “Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008
22What about JamesBrother of Jesus, son of Mary and Joseph (Matthew 13:55)“Of all people, though, James (and Jude) being Jesus’ brothers, would have known Jesus better than many of the disciples, with the exception of his years of ministry where he was closer to the disciples (although with the help of the Holy Spirit, any apostle could relay first-person events). “ - Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008Paul Considered Seeing the Risen Christ an important part of his defense (I Corinthians 9:1) – His brothers were among the disciples and considered one mind (Acts 1:13-14) – Jesus visited James in his risen state prior to the Apostles (I Corinthians 15:7)James considered an Apostle according to Galatians 1:19 – “But I did not see any other of the apostles except James, the Lord’s brother.”Church Forefather Papias – referred to James, Peter and John as equal pillars
23What about JudeBrother of Jesus, son of Mary and Joseph (Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3)Jude is short for Judas – Probably changed name after betrayalJude 1:1 “Jude, a bond-servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, To those who are the called, beloved in God the Father, and kept for Jesus Christ:”“Having Jude mention that he is the brother of James implies that he was “lesser known” than James who was “well known” and was at the time the head of the Church at Jerusalem.” - Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008Jude 1:17 “But you, beloved, remember the words which were spoken before by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ:”This would be classified as being under the guidance of his brother James
24The Books Self-Claim to be of God New Testament Different than the Apocryphal booksI Peter 1:12 It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves, but you, in these things which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from heaven—things into which angels long to look.Other Examples:I Cor. 2:12-13I Thes. 4:1-2Col. 4:16-18John 16: 7-15
25Putting It Together Christ New Testament Old Testament Apostles Witnessed the Resurrected BodySelf-Authenticated by an Apostle Christ CommissionedConfirmed by ChristCame to FulfillScribes
26What About Cults?How would we use this process to stand-up against those that would have an additional revelation from God to follow?
27Recognized by the Early Church Church Forefathers recognized and quoted from this canon, making them widespread through the region.Polycarp (disciple of John), Ignatius (before A.D. 150) , Tertullian (b. c. 155–d. 230) , Clement of Alexandria (b. c. 150–d. 215) and Justin Martyr (mid-second century)The Authoritative List was used to reduce confusion with other writings (like the Gnostics)The Muratorian Canon about A.D. 150, though damaged listed all but 5 NT booksEusebius in the 4th century lists all but about five but does not reject any
28History Confirms the Bible HistoricThe Bible accurately records historical details about people groups, cities, and customs.Prophetic50 prophecies of the birth, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus ChristScientific AccuracyEarth is Round (Isaiah 40:22)Living things reproduce after their kinds (Genesis 1:24-25)There are Paths in the Oceans (Psalms 8:8)
29Holy Spirit Ultimately Confirms “One would expect that Christians, who have the indwelling of the Holy Spirit who is God (2 Timothy 1:14), would be able to recognize God’s writings to man and use them—but at the same time recognize that man doesn’t set the canon but merely discovers what God has done.” - Bodie Hodge, AiG–U.S. January 23, 2008Your own Life Changing Experience – The Before, Encounter and After with Christ
30Are More Books to Come? Scripture Mentions Other Books The Book of Life – Author GodBook of Jashar – (Joshua 1:13; 2 Samuel 10:18)Books of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel and JudahBook of Enoch – (Jude 1:15)“If quoted, then that particular passage can be seen as Scripture but not the rest of the book.” HodgeScriptures are Preserved as Scriptures Said they would (Psalm 12:6-7)Scriptures can not be Broken (John 10:35)God can not Lie (Hebrews 6:18) so the scriptures will not contradict itself
31Revelation Closes it All There needed to be direct Connection with ChristPaul points out that he was the last to see Christ and hence the last of the apostles in I Corinthians 15:8Revelation was recognized by the early church to be the last of the Scriptures written.Revelation 22:18-19 “I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues which are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his part from the tree of life and from the holy city, which are written in this book.”
32Appendix – Time Took Long Why did it take so long for the list of the New Testament canon to show up?The apostles did not leave us with a neat list of authoritative books.No scroll could contain all the books, and the process of making books (called codices) did not become popular in the Roman Empire until the fourth century.6The churches were widely scattered across the Roman Empire and beyond, from Britain to North Africa and east into Persia. Early Christians were still facing persecution and could not easily meet together.Source Brian Edwards, Answers Magazine 9/18/07
33Appendix - ReferencesBasic Theology, Charles C. Ryrie