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How We Got the Bible INTRODUCTION General Outline 1.Introduction, Canon, & Inspiration 2.Oral Transmission & Early Forms 3.“Discovering” the Law (Josiah.

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Presentation on theme: "How We Got the Bible INTRODUCTION General Outline 1.Introduction, Canon, & Inspiration 2.Oral Transmission & Early Forms 3.“Discovering” the Law (Josiah."— Presentation transcript:

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2 How We Got the Bible INTRODUCTION

3 General Outline 1.Introduction, Canon, & Inspiration 2.Oral Transmission & Early Forms 3.“Discovering” the Law (Josiah & Ezra) 4.Apocryphal Writings 5.Early Gospel Sources 6.The Writing of the New Testament

4 General Outline 7.The Dissemination of the New Testament 8.The New Testament Canon 9.Gnostic Gospels & Beyond 10.Textual Criticism 11.The Catholic Era & The Reformation 12.The Bible in Your Hand

5 What Will Be Covered To understand how the book we call “the Bible” came to be in our hands, we will need to study: Several Thousand Years of History … Several Thousand Years of History … Doubt: Created and Destroyed Doubt: Created and Destroyed Myths & Misrepresentations Myths & Misrepresentations LIGHTFOOT: “Living in a day when books are written and printed by the thousands, we are apt to overlook the fascinating drama that lies behind our Bible.” LIGHTFOOT: “Living in a day when books are written and printed by the thousands, we are apt to overlook the fascinating drama that lies behind our Bible.”

6 Inspiration A Comparison for Sake of Brevity A WORD IS MADE OF TWO PARTS. A WORD IS MADE OF TWO PARTS. The Living Word: Jesus is every bit divine and every bit human. The Living Word: Jesus is every bit divine and every bit human. The Written Word: The Bible is every bit divine in origin and yet is still very human. The Written Word: The Bible is every bit divine in origin and yet is still very human. Inspiration is the process whereby a human communicates a divinely given message. Inspiration is the process whereby a human communicates a divinely given message. 2 Timothy 3:16-17 (ESV) All Scripture is breathed out by God … 2 Timothy 3:16-17 (ESV) All Scripture is breathed out by God …

7 The Canon kanon (Greek) / qaneh (Hebrew) – “reed” kanon (Greek) / qaneh (Hebrew) – “reed” A canon is a standard rule of measuring. A canon is a standard rule of measuring. R.T. Beckwith: “With respect to the Bible, it speaks of those books that met the standard and therefore were worthy of inclusion. Since the fourth century kanon has been used by Christians to denote an authoritative list of the books belonging to the Old Testament or New Testament.” R.T. Beckwith: “With respect to the Bible, it speaks of those books that met the standard and therefore were worthy of inclusion. Since the fourth century kanon has been used by Christians to denote an authoritative list of the books belonging to the Old Testament or New Testament.”

8 The Bible biblia – “the books” biblia – “the books” Two Covenants/Testaments Two Covenants/Testaments – Old Testament – New Testament At least 40 humans participated in the writing of the Bible At least 40 humans participated in the writing of the Bible Around 1500 years transpire from the first writing to the last Around 1500 years transpire from the first writing to the last

9 The Bible’s View of Itself Daniel 9:2 Daniel 9:2 Matthew 21:42 Matthew 21:42 2 Peter 3: Peter 3:15-16

10 Hebrew Designations Hebrew Scriptures or tanak TORAH – Law TORAH – Law NEVI’M – Prophets NEVI’M – Prophets KETHUVIM – Writings KETHUVIM – Writings Matthew 5:17 (ESV) "Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.” Matthew 5:17 (ESV) "Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them.”

11 Hebrew Designations Josephus (Against Apion 1:8): For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another, [as the Greeks have,] but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. …

12 Hebrew Designations Josephus (Against Apion 1:8): … This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life. …

13 Hebrew Designations Josephus (Against Apion 1:8): … It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time; and how firmly we have given credit to these books of our own nation is evident by what we do; …

14 Hebrew Designations Josephus (Against Apion 1:8): … for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add any thing to them, to take any thing from them, or to make any change in them; but it is become natural to all Jews immediately, and from their very birth, to esteem these books to contain Divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be willingly to die for them.

15 Hebrew Designations Hebrew Scriptures or tanak: Modern Designation Law: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Law: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Prophets: Prophets: – Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings – Latter Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Book of the Twelve Writings: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra/Nehemiah, Chronicles Writings: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra/Nehemiah, Chronicles

16 Hebrew Language Hebrew originally had consonants and no written vowels. Hebrew originally had consonants and no written vowels. Vowels were added in the 7 th Century AD. Vowels were added in the 7 th Century AD. Hebrew reads from right to left. Hebrew reads from right to left. Hebrew is a lyrical, poetic language. Hebrew is a lyrical, poetic language. A small portion of the Old Testament is written in Aramaic, as used in the Captivity. A small portion of the Old Testament is written in Aramaic, as used in the Captivity.

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