2 Food Type Use Carbohydrate Fat Protein Long term energy Fast energy Protecting organs and long term energy storeMaking muscle, enzymes, skin, hairBrainstorm 4 main food types and where they come fromFat and protein meat, fishSugars fruit, sweet thingsCrbs from pasta, potatoes etc
3 Food tests Food type Test Protein Sugar Fat Carbohydrate Biuret turns purple if protein is presentBenedicts turns from blue to red/brown if sugar is presentGreaseproof paper gets an oily residueIodine turns blue/black if starch is presentKOH and CuSO4 BiuretExpt H/O whats in our foodtest a variety of foods
4 The Digestive System Buccal cavity Oesophagus Stomach Small Intestine (Breaking food down into smaller pieces)Buccal cavityOesophagusStomachSmall IntestineLiverLarge IntestineGall BladderPancreasRectumAnusH/O anticipation guide digestion and absorptionH/O vocab square digestionH/O game structure of digestive systemStretch out person until intestine is straight they are 8m long, HORSE 30M! shine torchIngestionDigestionAbsorbtionEgestion
5 Mouth (mechanical breakdown) Teeth Incisors used for cutting Tongue Canines used for stabbing and holdingMolars large surface area used for grindingTongueused for muscular activitiesand sensing the taste of foodMasseter muscle zygomatic arch, cranial ridge = carnivoreHerbivore – diastema plate for incisors to press againstEpiglotis prevents food going down the wrong way
6 Salivary Glands Produce saliva Three pairs Prevents bacterial infectionLubricationContains salivary amylaseBreaks down starchThree pairsParotid: LargestSubmandibularSublingual: Smallest
7 Oesophagus Approximately 25cm long Moves food from the throat to the stomachMuscle movement called peristalsisIf acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.A good way to describe peristalsis is an ocean wave moving through the muscle.These diagrams don’t separate the esophagus from the mouth functions, you might want to talk about what happens in the mouth too.
8 Stomach Stores the food you eat Chemically breaks it down into tiny piecesMixes food with digestive juicesAcid in the stomach kills bacteriaThe stomach takes around 4 hours to do it’s job on the food, depending on what kinds of food are digested.Digestive juices HCL and pepsin (protein breakdown)
9 Small Intestine Small intestines are roughly 6 metres long. Enzymes and bile are added.Villi increase the surface area to help absorbtion.Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls.Enzymes breakdown large molecules.Villi look like little fingersBlood system is in close proximity to carry nutrients away around the rest of the body
10 Liver Directly affects digestion by producing bile Bile is an enzyme that helps dissolve fatProcesses nutrients in the blood, filters out toxins and waste.Is often called the body’s energy factoryLivers can regenerate missing pieces if necessary. Is one of the largest organs in the body.
11 Gall Bladder Stores bile from the liver Delivers bile when food is digestedFatty diets can cause gallstonesExplain to students that removing the stones typically means removing the gallbladder, but that the body eventually adjusts to not having the bile stored.
12 Pancreas Produces compounds to digest fats and proteins Neutralizes acids that enter small intestineRegulates blood sugar by producing insulinExplain the difference between the two types of diabetes. In type 1, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. In type 2, the body stops responding properly to the insulin it creates.Enzymes for breakdown of protein, cbh, sugar
13 Large Intestine About 1.5 metres long Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb.Absorbs water and minerals from the waste matter.Absorption means taking into the body via the blood stream.Depending on the maturity of the group, you can talk about the feces leaving via the anus.Mention the appendix at the bottom of the ascending colon and that it might have been used long ago but is not todayMention the portions of the large intestine, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, and rectum (last one if the audience is mature enough)
14 Rectum and Anus Rectum Anus About 15cm long Stores waste before egestion.AnusMuscular ring that controls egestion.H/O game word play