2Food Type Use Carbohydrate Fat Protein Sugars Long term energy Protecting organs and long term energy storeMaking muscle, enzymes, skin, hairFast energyBrainstorm 4 main food types and where they come fromFat and protein meat, fishSugars fruit, sweet thingsCrbs from pasta, potatoes etc
3Food tests Food type Test Protein Sugar Fat Carbohydrate Biuret turns purple if protein is presentBenedicts turns from blue to red/brown if sugar is presentGreaseproof paper gets an oily residueIodine turns blue/black if starch is presentKOH and CuSO4 BiuretExpt H/O whats in our foodtest a variety of foods
4Carnivore Only eats meat E.g. Spider, lionIts survival is dependent on finding and catching preyWhat happens in times of famine, turn on each other, strong surviveHunt in packs or individually (dogs , spider – what are the benefits of each? Sharing in times of need idea of love and family helps share the bounty – mutualism (communism)Top predator – Nothing eats him!
5Carnivore Teeth Adaptation What do you notice?Crocodile and shark continue to grow new teethWhy doesn’t it chew for a long time?
6Herbivore Only eats plants Depends on a large supply of plant matter. E.g. Cow, aphidDepends on a large supply of plant matter.Longer gut as less energy available in their food.Much bigger than t rex scales and tail for defence, tend to be herd animals for defence in numbers like african zebraSlow moving not as much energy in the food and plants don’t run away!What if there is a drought? What happens to the carnivores?
7Herbivore Teeth Adaptation How does the sheep teeth differ from carnivore?What are the ridges on the elephant tooth for? GRINDING – cellulose is hard to digest due to cell wall so needs to chew for a long timeGap in teeth for rechewing grass, no canine.What about the muscle strengthRabbit teeth continualy grow and are eroded by the hard plant material they eatWhy so many molars?
8Omnivore Eats a mixture of plants and animals E.g. Pigs, humansIncreased chance of survival as they are not restricted to one diet.OviraptorStill dependent on plants but will take any opportunity to feed
9Decomposers Breaks down and recycles dead material. E.g. Bacteria, fungiHave survived for millions of years, always plenty of dead things
10Primary Producers (Plants) Plants can make their own food usingSunlightChlorophyllWaterCarbon dioxideHow are all the consumers and producers linked?What happens if one factor is missing – plant diesWhat is the effect on herbivores and carnivoresDinosaur extinction theory, asteroid hits dust and volcanic explosion block out sun for several years…What about the fly trap – tops up its nutrition with protein rich flies!H/O Food chains cut out pics
11Definitions Trophic level Producer Consumer – feeding group in food chain (eg Herbivore)– makes own food– eats other organisms for foodWhat are the trophic groups in this diagram (all consumers) Assume the little fish feeds on algae then there is a herbivore, series of carnivores and a top predator
12Food Chain Shark Fish Zooplankton Phytoplankton ConsumersSharkTop PredatorFishCarnivoreZooplanktonHerbivoreImportant to draw the arrows to indicate direction of food flowPhytoplanktonProducerLabel the trophic levels as herbivore, carnivore, producer, top predator. Indicate which are consumers.
13Food webs can get very complex EXERCISE – Rose bush food web
14Food ChainsFood chains describe how organisms gain______ from eating each other in a community.Plants are called _______ because they make glucose using energy from the _______________ must eat other organisms for their _______ and nutrients.FoodProducersH/O food chain QsSunConsumersEnergy
15Energy PyramidsOnly about 10% of energy passed on between trophic levelsFew CarnivoresMore HerbivoresMost is lost through the organisms living processesName the trophic levels (producer, herbivore, carnivore)Why is it a good idea to eat from the bottom of the pyramid/? Poisons accumulate, energy decreases so need to eat more, don’t need to be as active plants don’t runAll supported by energy from producers
16Let’s find out what happened to your breakfast today! The Digestive System(Breaking food down into smaller pieces)Let’s find out what happened to your breakfast today!MouthOesophagusStomachSmall IntestineLiverLarge IntestineGall BladderPancreasRectumAnusH/O anticipation guide digestion and absorptionH/O vocab square digestionH/O game structure of digestive systemStretch out person until intestine is straight they are 8m long, HORSE 30M! shine torchIngestionDigestionAbsorbtionEgestion
17Mouth Teeth (mechanical breakdown) Saliva (chemical breakdown) Incisors used for cuttingCanines used for stabbing and holdingMolars large surface area used for grindingSaliva(chemical breakdown)Enzyme (speeds up reactions in the body)Breaks down carbohydrateMasseter muscle zygomatic arch, cranial ridge = carnivoreHerbivore – diastema plate for incisors to press againstEpiglotis prevents food going down the wrong way
18Oesophagus Approximately 25cm long Moves food from the throat to the stomachMuscle movement called peristalsisIf acid from the stomach gets in here that’s heartburn.A good way to describe peristalsis is an ocean wave moving through the muscle.These diagrams don’t separate the esophagus from the mouth functions, you might want to talk about what happens in the mouth too.
19Stomach Stores the food you eat Chemically breaks it down into tiny piecesMixes food with digestive juicesAcid in the stomach kills bacteriaThe stomach takes around 4 hours to do it’s job on the food, depending on what kinds of food are digested.Digestive juices HCL and pepsin (protein breakdown)
20Small Intestine Small intestines are roughly 6 metres long. Enzymes and bile are added.Villi increase the surface area to help absorbtion.Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls.Enzymes breakdown large molecules.Villi look like little fingersBlood system is in close proximity to carry nutrients away around the rest of the body
21Liver Directly affects digestion by producing bile Bile is an enzyme that helps dissolve fatProcesses nutrients in the blood, filters out toxins and waste.Is often called the body’s energy factoryLivers can regenerate missing pieces if necessary. Is one of the largest organs in the body.
22Gall Bladder Stores bile from the liver Delivers bile when food is digestedFatty diets can cause gallstonesExplain to students that removing the stones typically means removing the gallbladder, but that the body eventually adjusts to not having the bile stored.
23Pancreas Produces compounds to digest fats and proteins Neutralizes acids that enter small intestineRegulates blood sugar by producing insulinExplain the difference between the two types of diabetes. In type 1, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. In type 2, the body stops responding properly to the insulin it creates.Enzymes for breakdown of protein, cbh, sugar
24Large Intestine About 1.5 metres long Accepts what small intestines don’t absorb.Absorbs water and minerals from the waste matter.Absorption means taking into the body via the blood stream.Depending on the maturity of the group, you can talk about the feces leaving via the anus.Mention the appendix at the bottom of the ascending colon and that it might have been used long ago but is not todayMention the portions of the large intestine, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, and rectum (last one if the audience is mature enough)
25Rectum and Anus Rectum Anus About 15cm long Stores waste before egestion.AnusMuscular ring that controls egestion.H/O game word play
26Write the name of each colored organ: Green:Red:Pink:Brown:Purple:Yellow:
27Answers Green: Oesophagus Red: Stomach Pink: Small Intestine Brown: Large IntestinePurple: LiverGreen: Gall BladderYellow: PancreasH/O in teams complete 69 the digestive system then use it to Draw full size body and position organs
28Cells Cells are the building blocks of life All cells have the following in common:NucleusCytoplasmMitochondriaCell membranePlant cells also have a cell wall and chloroplastsWhy do we need these nutrients from food?H/o match up Plant and animal cell components
29Function of cell organelles Nucleuslargest organellecontrol centreInstructions for the whole bodyCell membraneControls the entry and exit of materialCytoplasmLiquid containing cell parts and nutrientsMitochondriaPowerhouse (burns energy from food)Anticipation guide microscopeExpt view cheek cell, onion cell, hay infusion – scientific drawing practise
30Turning food into energy Respiration is the conversion of glucose into energyGlucose is “burnt” with oxygenIt takes place in the MitochondriaC6H12O6 + 6O CO2 + 6H2O +ENERGYCarbon DioxideWaterWe burn coal in oxygen to give us energy in powewrstationsFactory analogy lorries bring reactants represent blood, factory is mitochondria, co2 h2o are waste products, energy is used for growth, reproduction, movement etcHow does body transport blood (oxygen, glucose, co2 etc) pumped via heartH/O Energy in foodExpt burn variety of foodsENERGYGlucoseOxygen
31Circulatory System What is it for ? Anticipation guide transport in the bodylorry need to transport oxygen and foodBRAINSTORM PARTSPump 2 = right side of heart pump blood to oxygen plant (lungs)Return to pump 1 sends blood to factory (rest of body)Heart = pumpVessels like tree branchesWe need 2 pumps because 1 would not have enough energy to push blood through the lungs and then around the body.
32Anatomy of the Heart Oxygenated blood LHS thicker Deoxygenated blood To the bodyLHS thickerDeoxygenated bloodTo the lungsVideo? (major organs H/O)Discuss flow of bloodOxygenated, deoxygenated, 2 pump, left thicker, artery leave heart, veins return, valvesComplete heart H/ODissection of heartElephant beat 25/minMouse 600/minBaby 120/minUs 70/minHow many beats in a lifetime?Same for mouse?Heart jigsaw in teamsEXPT Measure pulse before and after exercise Why does the pulse rate go up? Muscles need more oxygen therefore blood needs to be pumped quicker. Who had lowest rate = fittest ALSO who’s returned to normal quickest.
33Blood VesselsBlood vessels laid out = Km round the earth 2x
34Structure of Arteries Oxygenated blood leaving heart High pressure Thick muscular wallsException pulmonary arteryAtherosclerosis thickening of artery wall fat deposits hard work for blood to be pumped, finally blocked stroke, heart attack blood flow to heart is blocked and muscle diesSMOKINGincrease pulse rate (heart beats)15 bpm ,Increase blood pressure so heart works harderIncrease fats so vessels narrowIncreased clotting thick blood harder to moveWbc anaesthetised get more infectionsPULSE RATE EXPT can feel high pressure in arteries
35Structure of Capillaries Carry blood to cellsRemove wasteDeliver oxygenDeliver foodSingle file r.b.c.Very thin walls (single cell thick)H/O diagram of capillaryO2, CO2 and food can pass into/ out of capillariesX =O2Y= CO2Z = sugars
36Structure of Veins Deoxygenated blood returning to heart Thin walls Low pressureValves – allow flow of blood in one directionMuscle contractionException pulmonary veinHarvey EXPT tie arm drain vein
37Blood Plasma Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Platelets Liquid carries other componentsNutrientsWaste like carbon dioxideRed Blood CellsCarry oxygen and carbon dioxideWhite Blood CellsFight diseasePlateletsClottingRound the room exercise Blood (5 reading workstations)Blood 50% water, 50% RBC life span 120 days made in bone marrow, rbc like donut, no nucleus 25 trillionRecap H/O circulatory system then provide letter home to Mum H/O