Presentation on theme: "Food Type Carbohydrate Fat Protein Sugars Use Long term energy Protecting organs and long term energy store Making muscle, enzymes, skin, hair Fast."— Presentation transcript:
Food Type Carbohydrate Fat Protein Sugars Use Long term energy Protecting organs and long term energy store Making muscle, enzymes, skin, hair Fast energy
Food tests Food type Protein Sugar Fat Carbohydrate Test Biuret turns purple if protein is present Benedicts turns from blue to red/brown if sugar is present Greaseproof paper gets an oily residue Iodine turns blue/black if starch is present
Carnivore Only eats meat –E.g. Spider, lion Its survival is dependent on finding and catching prey Top predator – Nothing eats him!
Carnivore Teeth Adaptation
Herbivore Only eats plants –E.g. Cow, aphid Depends on a large supply of plant matter. Longer gut as less energy available in their food.
Herbivore Teeth Adaptation
Omnivore Eats a mixture of plants and animals –E.g. Pigs, humans Increased chance of survival as they are not restricted to one diet.
Decomposers Breaks down and recycles dead material. –E.g. Bacteria, fungi
Primary Producers (Plants) Plants can make their own food using –Sunlight –Chlorophyll –Water –Carbon dioxide How are all the consumers and producers linked?
Definitions Trophic level Producer Consumer – feeding group in food chain (eg Herbivore) – makes own food – eats other organisms for food
Phytoplankton Zooplankton Fish Shark Label the trophic levels as herbivore, carnivore, producer, top predator. Indicate which are consumers. Top Predator Carnivore Herbivore Producer Consumers Food Chain
Food Chains Food chains describe how organisms gain______ from eating each other in a community. Plants are called _______ because they make glucose using energy from the ______ _________ must eat other organisms for their _______ and nutrients. Producers Sun Consumers Energy Food
Energy Pyramids Only about 10% of energy passed on between trophic levels Few Carnivores More Herbivores All supported by energy from producers Most is lost through the organisms living processes
The Digestive System Mouth Oesophagus Stomach Small Intestine Liver Large Intestine Gall Bladder Pancreas Rectum Anus Lets find out what happened to your breakfast today! (Breaking food down into smaller pieces)
Mouth Teeth (mechanical breakdown) –Incisors used for cutting –Canines used for stabbing and holding –Molars large surface area used for grinding Saliva (chemical breakdown) –Enzyme (speeds up reactions in the body) –Breaks down carbohydrate
Oesophagus Approximately 25cm long Moves food from the throat to the stomach –Muscle movement called peristalsis If acid from the stomach gets in here thats heartburn.
Stomach Stores the food you eat Chemically breaks it down into tiny pieces Mixes food with digestive juices Acid in the stomach kills bacteria
Small Intestine Small intestines are roughly 6 metres long. Enzymes and bile are added. Villi increase the surface area to help absorbtion. Nutrients from the food pass into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls.
Liver Directly affects digestion by producing bile –Bile is an enzyme that helps dissolve fat Processes nutrients in the blood, filters out toxins and waste. Is often called the bodys energy factory
Gall Bladder Stores bile from the liver Delivers bile when food is digested Fatty diets can cause gallstones
Pancreas Produces compounds to digest fats and proteins Neutralizes acids that enter small intestine Regulates blood sugar by producing insulin
Large Intestine About 1.5 metres long Accepts what small intestines dont absorb. Absorbs water and minerals from the waste matter. Absorption means taking into the body via the blood stream.
Rectum and Anus Rectum –About 15cm long –Stores waste before egestion. Anus –Muscular ring that controls egestion.
Write the name of each colored organ: Green: Red: Pink: Brown: Purple: Green: Yellow:
Answers Green: Oesophagus Red: Stomach Pink: Small Intestine Brown: Large Intestine Purple: Liver Green: Gall Bladder Yellow: Pancreas
Cells Cells are the building blocks of life All cells have the following in common: Nucleus Cytoplasm Mitochondria Cell membrane Plant cells also have a cell wall and chloroplasts
Function of cell organelles Nucleus –largest organelle –control centre –Instructions for the whole body Cell membrane –Controls the entry and exit of material Cytoplasm –Liquid containing cell parts and nutrients Mitochondria –Powerhouse (burns energy from food)
ENERGY Turning food into energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Respiration is the conversion of glucose into energy Glucose is burnt with oxygen It takes place in the Mitochondria GlucoseOxygen ENERGY Carbon Dioxide Water
Circulatory System What is it for ? We need 2 pumps because 1 would not have enough energy to push blood through the lungs and then around the body.
Anatomy of the Heart Oxygenated blood –To the body LHS thicker Deoxygenated blood –To the lungs
Structure of Arteries Oxygenated blood leaving heart High pressure Thick muscular walls
Structure of Capillaries Carry blood to cells –Remove waste –Deliver oxygen –Deliver food Single file r.b.c. Very thin walls (single cell thick)
Structure of Veins Deoxygenated blood returning to heart Thin walls Low pressure Valves – allow flow of blood in one direction Muscle contraction
Blood Plasma –Liquid carries other components –Nutrients –Waste like carbon dioxide Red Blood Cells –Carry oxygen and carbon dioxide White Blood Cells –Fight disease Platelets –Clotting