2Learning goals By the end of the colleges and reading you should: Know what a context based scenario isUnderstand the role of scenarios is product developmentKnow how to use personas to construct context based scenarios
3Agenda Types of scenarios What is a context based scenario? Steps in developing context based scenariosThe next stageSummary
5Types of scenario Alan Cooper identifies three types of scenario Context based scenariosKey path scenariosValidation scenarios
6Use of scenarios in product development Each of these has a role in product developmentContext based scenarios are used to define user requirementsKey path scenarios are used to define the interaction frameworkValidation scenarios are used to refine the design and make sure it deals with exceptions and special cases
8What are context based user scenarios? Context based scenarios are stories (narrative tools) that use personas to describe what a user wants to achieve through use of a product in order to suggest a list of user requirementsThey can also suggest what is wrong with the situation as is it is currently
9Why persona based?Personas are archetypes of the various users of a product (or people with a particular problem)Personas have goals and behavioursThey want to achieve certain things and will behave in particular ways to achieve themPersonas allow us to construct a story of an ideal usage scenario to help us develop (or change) products that allow users to achieve their goalsPersonas keep us at the level of goals rather than tasks in initial development
10Tasks versus goalsTasks describe how someone makes a product achieve their goalsGoals describe what they want to achieve by using the product
11Activity: Discuss the following questions with your neighbour What task do I have to carry out when using an system?What goals might I have for when using an system?
12Goals first, tasks later If we focus on tasks first we get into detail too soonWe do not know what is important and unimportantWe have not thought about the user’s real problemsThe first questions should be:Why do they want to use a system (their goals)What does the system have to offer to allow them to do this?Goals allow us to focus on the why and what questions so that we can better fit the hows to the user’s goalsContext based scenarios allow us to focus on why and what rather than how in the initial stages of product development(Of course we have to look at how to create a product, but this is done later in the process)
15Create problem & vision statements The problem statement defines the objective of the product (or design for Cooper)It defines what needs to change for both the personas (users) and the organizationThe vision statement defines at a high level what the ideal solution will look like for both the user and the organization
16Example Problem statement Vision statement Company X has recently tried to grow its market share in the profitable 55+ holidays market segment by 15%, but has not been successful as it conducts its business online only. This is because 55+ users feel that online travel agents lack the “personal touch” to design a holiday specifically for them and so they continue to use high street travel agentsVision statementCompany X’s new online booking system will allow 55+ users to create individually tailored holidays comparable with those purchased at high street travel agents in a way equivalent or better than via a high street travel agent. This will allow company X to reach their goal of increasing their market share by 15%
17Brainstorm solutionsBrainstorming is a process of generating ideas on a specific topic quicklyIn context based scenarios its role is to get your initial ideas for solutions out of your head so that you can look at the problem more openlyThese solutions might not be the final solution!But getting rid of preconceived ideas can open your thinking to other solutions
18Identify persona expectations The purpose of this stage is to identify the goals and expectations of the personasBased on the personas you should be able to decide what they would expect the product to deliver (their end goals) and how they would expect it to work in an ideal world (their experience goals)This can also be done via brainstorming too (but only after the solution brainstorming)
19Construct context scenarios Context scenarios are stories that put the persona into a “real-life” situation where they use the productImagine situations where the persona(s) have to use the product to achieve their goals in everyday termsWrite them down and storyboard themDo not focus on tasks, just what they want to achievePretend for now that the product is magicBe general
20Things to consider in constructing context scenarios What are the key activities that the persona needs to do to achieve their goals?What is their expected end goal(s) from using the productWhere and when will the product be used?Will be used for a long or for a short amount of time?Is the persona frequently interrupted?What other products are used with this product?What is the skill, knowledge levels of the persona - is complexity allowed?
21StoryboardsCooper does not recommend making a storyboard for context based scenariosHowever, they can be usefulVisualizing the story helpsClarityConsistencyCommunicationWe recommend that you do this here
23Identifying user needs Having written (and storyboarded) your scenario you can now look to see what the user needs areNeeds consist ofObjects - actual things they need such as screens, buttons, etc.Actions - things they need to be able to do such as sending , paying, etc.
25SummaryScenarios are used in the early stages of a product development process to:Identify user needsDevelop initial interaction designRefine design and deal with exceptionsScenarios are based on personasFocus on goals not tasksContext scenario development is the first stage of the process