Presentation on theme: "Common Core Reading October 11, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1Common Core Reading October 11, 2012 ModestoCommon CoreReadingOctober 11, 2012
2Performance TasksThe main purpose of performance tasks (PT) is to address complex targets from multiple claims that require analytical thinking, evaluations, and support of students’ own responses to texts. The PTs provide a means for students to demonstrate the ability to think and to reason and to use higher- order thinking skills to provide the required evidence for multiple claims and targets. Students will produce either a full write text or present a speech which will be scored according to a rubric. These kinds of tasks demonstrate the Smarter Balanced intent to show evidence that students are ready for college or career.
5Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Choose Standard Choose Scorable Product Presentation of InformationStep 4Processing of Content
6Sample Student Work Products Also see p. 20 in Using Rigor and Relevance to Create Effective Instruction
7Digging into the Standards Divide into grade level groups to investigate the reading strand.How does the grade span develop from one grade to another?Identify the “step up” in task difficulty at each grade for the standards (Begin with Standard 9.)Participants will need a copy of their grade level standardsGrade level teams record the step –up for their grade levelTeams will have 20 minutes to discuss the standardsTeams will report out on their findings and discuss the implications of the step up
8Digging into the Standards Remember that each “step up” in task difficulty is matched by a “step up” in text complexity.Select a recorder, reporter and time keeperRecord the step up on chart paper for your grade (20 minutes)Teams report out and discussion the implications for their grade levels (20 minutes)
9Standard 9 progression of difficulty 1st – omitted “With prompting and support”2nd – added “most important” points3rd – added “and key details”4th – added “Integrate” … “in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably”5th – added “several” textsDraw participants’ attention to Standard 9 and how the task difficulty “steps up” at each grade level.Note that some of the steps appear bigger than others: The jump here between 3rd and 4th grade for example.Ask participants if they identified other places where the “step up” between grades was quite substantial. [In Standards 3, 5, 8, for example.]For instance, the facilitator might say,“Let’s look at how the standards ‘step up’ the level of task difficulty from grade to grade in Standard 9 first. If we look at these steps, I think we will agree that the step between 3rd and 4th grades represents a ‘bigger step’ than the other increments. In this case, it requires an integrated approach to the strands.Where else did you find relatively big jumps in cognitive demand? These are worth noting because they may prove a bit more challenging for us.Yes, Standards 3 and 8 ask students in grade 3 to begin using the language of the logical connections of time, sequence, cause/effect, comparison. That seems like a relatively big jump. How about Standard 6? [from grades 1 to 2 to 3 to 4. A level of self-awareness is necessary at the 3rd grade level, etc.]And Standard 5 goes from focusing on text features (which are visible) to text structure (which is not) in grade 4.”
10Standard 8 progression of difficulty 7 – “assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claim”8 – “recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”9-10 – “valid” reasoning; “identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”11-12 “seminal U. S. texts”; “constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning”; “premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy”Draw participants’ attention to the distinctions that raise the level of rigor from grade to grade in Standard 8.Note that some of the steps appear bigger than others: The jump here between 9-10th and 11-12th.For instance, the facilitator might say,“Let’s look at how the standards ‘step up’ the level of task difficulty from grade to grade in Standard 8 first. If we look at these steps, I think we will agree that the step between 9-10 and grade bands represents a ‘bigger step’ than the other increments. In this case, it requires some very specific content knowledge by which to evaluate the informational text.Where else did you find relatively big jumps in cognitive demand or background knowledge? These are worth noting because they may prove a bit more challenging for us.”
11Text complexity is defined by: Overview of Text ComplexityReading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by gradeText complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demandsQuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexityBest measured by an attentive readerAbility to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a textKnowledge of four factors in developing effective tools:Levels of Meaning or PurposeReader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student:Cognitive abilitiesMotivationTopic knowledgeLinguistic and discourse knowledgeComprehension strategiesExperiences“Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group”Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile)Sentence lengthText cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix)Measurement tools ( Lexile exampleStructureLanguage Conventionality & ClarityKnowledge DemandsReader and TaskReader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned
13Selecting TextsGrade Level teams analyze text to be used in unit (Unit should include short and longer texts)Using the Text Complexity tools determine the appropriateness of a text for your grade levelAdditional time will be provided this afternoon for additional text analysis15 – Lexile Tool15A Text Complexity Qualitative Figure 215B Tools for Examining Text Complexity (Qualitative Measures, record text and standard16 Gradients in Text Complexity for Informational Text17 Gradients in Text Complexity for Literature
14Step 1: Qualitative Measures Measures such as:Levels of meaningLevels of purposeStructureOrganizationLanguage conventionalityLanguage clarityPrior knowledge demands
18Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the StandardsOld Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectationsK-1N/A2-34-56-89-1011-CCRMetametrics has realigned its Lexile ranges to match the Standards’ text complexity grade bands and has adjusted upward its trajectory of reading comprehension development through the grades
197 The band levels themselves have been expanded slightly over the original CCSS scale that appears in Appendix A at both the top and bottom of each band to provide for a more modulated climb toward college and career readiness and offer slightly more overlap between bands. The wider band width allows more flexibility in the younger grades where students enter school with widely varied preparation levels. This change was provided in response to feedback received since publication of the original scale (published in terms of the Lexile® metric) in Appendix A.8 Since Flesch-Kincaid has no ‘caretaker’ that oversees or maintains the formula, the research leads worked to bring the measure in line with college and career readiness levels of text complexity based on the version of the formula used by Coh-Metrix.
21Step 3: Reader and Task Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experiencePurpose for readingComplexity of task assigned regarding textComplexity of questions asked regarding text
22Step 4: Recommended Placement After reflecting upon all three legs of the text complexity model we can make a final recommendation of placement within a text and begin to document our thinking for future reference.
23Text Dependent Questions Step One: Identify the Core Understandings and Key Ideas of the TextDesign BackwardsWhat are the major pointsEssential to designing good questions and a culminating assignment
24Text Dependent Questions Step Two: Start Small to Build ConfidenceOpening questions should be ones that help orientate students to the textBe sufficiently specific enough for them to answerConfidence to tackle more difficult questions later on.
25Text Dependent Questions Step Three: Target Vocabulary and Text StructureKey text structuresAcademic words in the text that are connected to the key ideas and understandings, andCraft questions that illuminate these connections
26Text Dependent Questions Step Four: Tackle Tough Sections Head-onFind the sections of the text that will present the greatest difficulty and craft questions that support students in mastering these sections (these could be sections with difficult syntax, particularly dense information, and tricky transitions or places that offer a variety of possible inferences).
27Text Dependent Questions Step Five: Create Coherent Sequences of Text Dependent QuestionsQuestions should not be random but should build toward more coherent understanding and analysis to ensure that students learn to stay focused on the text to bring them to a gradual understanding of its meaning.
28Text Dependent Questions Step Six: Identify the Standards That Are Being AddressedStep Seven: Create the Culminating Assessment(a) mastery of one or more of the standards(b) involves writing, and(c) is structured to be completed by students independently.
29A Close Reading of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address section 1 What’s at stake: a nation as a place and an idea(1–2 days)Section 1 Activities Students first read Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address silently.Teacher reads out loud, student follow alongStudents re-read the first paragraph and translate it into their own words.Teacher asks the class a small set of guiding questions about the first paragraph of Lincoln’s speech.After the discussion, students rewrite their translation of Lincoln’s paragraph.The teacher guides discussion of first line of second paragraph.Wrap up.Please review the Gettysburg sample that I sent to see how questions evolve.
30A Close Reading of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address In the first sentence, what does Lincoln tell us about this new nation?“Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”
31Creating Text Based Questions In small groups develop several questions that require close reading of the first paragraph of the Gettysburg AddressSample questions are on the next slide
32A Close Reading of Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address Guiding Questions:What does Lincoln mean by “four score and seven years ago”? Who are “our fathers”?What does conceived mean?What does proposition mean?What is he saying is significant about America? Is he saying that no one has been free or equal before? So what is new?Sum up and gather what students have learned so far: have students summarize the three ways in which the nation is new.
33Text Dependent Questions Close analytic reading of Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address,” the following would not be text dependent questions:Why did the North fight the civil war?Have you ever been to a funeral or gravesite?Lincoln says that the nation is dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal.” Why is equality an important value to promote?these questions is that they require no familiarity at all with Lincoln’s speech in order to answer them. Responding to these sorts of questions instead requires students to go outside the text.
34Developing Text-Based Questions Resource: for sample units
37Developing a Unit Focus needs to address the Reading Strand Develop Focus of LearningDesign Performance TaskLearning ActivitiesSelect TextDevelop Text Based QuestionsResources Rigor/Relevance planning tools #31