2Subject: SpørsmålDate sent: Fri, 12 Mar :38:From:To:Hei!Hva er riktig å si når man ønsker å bestille 2 pølser, og pølsene skal ligge i hver sin lompe?Jeg bestilte 2 "pølse-med-lompe". Så ble jeg opptatt med noe annet, men da jeg åpnet posen oppdaget jeg det: Jeg hadderiktignok fått 2 pølser, men de lå i samme lompe!Hva burde jeg ha sagt?Jeg skal holde en forelesning klokken i dag, og tenkte å bruke "pølse-med-lompe"-paradokset som isbryter(!). Hadde detvært mulig å fått en uformell uttalselse innen den tid? Det hadde vært helt konge!HilsenIngerid Rødseth______________________________EDB TelecomSvar:Det er neppe mulig å slå fast at rent språklig er det riktig å si xxx. Spørsmålet har absolutt sine praktiske og pragmatiske sider, f.eks. hva som er vanlig å si i den situasjonen, hva slags kombinasjoner som er mest solgt, hvor godt personene kjenner hverandre osv. I en samtale skal en gjerne være så presis som nødvendig, men heller ikke mer. Når én person bestiller noe, regner kanskje ekspeditøren med at bestillingen gjelder én person, og at det er nok med én lompe.Jeg er ikke helt sikker på om du sa "to ganger pølse med lompe" f.eks.? Det burde holde. Ellers skulle også "to pølser i hver sinlompe" være nokså sikkert!!Med vennlig hilsenMarit HovdenakrådgiverNorsk språkråd (http://www.sprakrad.no)Postboks 8107 Dep, OSLOBesøk: C.J. Hambros pl. 5Telefon: (s.bord), (dir.)Faks:
3psychological phenomena in human computer interaction cognitivepsychological phenomenain human computer interactionIngerid RødsethEDB Telecom
4Human computer interaction Since early 80sRoots in ergonomics, World War II, MMIMultidiciplinary subject, an ideal designer should know:Cognitive psychologyErgonomicsSociologyComputer science / engineeringTarget businessGraphic designTechnical writingPhilosophyEtc.No general and unified theory of HCIA marriage between art and science: The arcitecture analogyA system should be useful, usable and usedNo longer a stepchild
7coginitive psychology- Neisser (1967): ”Cognitive Psychology refers to all process by which the sensory input isTransformedReducedElaboratedStoredRecoveredAnd used”Reed(1988): ”Cognition is usually defined simply as the acquisition of knowledge. However, the asquisition and use of knowledge involves many skills”.Matlin (1983): ”Cognition involves how we acquire, store, and retrive knowledge”.Ingerid RødsethEDB Telecom
9cognitive psychology-attempts to understandbasic mechanismsgoverning human thoughts-is the foundation for other areas within social sciencesclinical psychology (malfunctions)Social psychology (individual behaviour in groups)Political science (percuasion)Sociology (organizing groups)Linguistics (features in languages)-has been the subject for scientific research onlyfor a little more than 100 years.
10psychology historyEmpiricism – all knowledge come from experience (Berkely, Locke, Hume)Nativism – people are born with a great deal of knowledge (Descartes, Kant)1879 First laboratory for cognitive psychology, Wilhelm Wundt, Leipzig, GermanyIntrospection: Reporting the contents of your conciousnessCa Behaviorism (John Watson) Animal learning. No mental constructs.
11Cognitive psychology-newer tradition EmergedThree influencesWorld War II, information theory, processing information, training soldiers, attention breakdown. Donald Broadbent; perception & attentionArtificial intelligence, Allan Newell, Herbert SimonLinguistics, Naom Chomsky (MiT) Structure of languageUlric Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology Focused on perception and attentionCognitive science (Integrate Psychology, Philosophy, Linguistics, Neuroscience and AI) Computer simulation
12information processing analyses These various approaches converged into a new approach in studying human cognition: IPA: How to process informationCognition / information processing as a set of stepsInvolvesPerceiving stimuliHuman memoryDecision makingResponse generation
13the Sternberg Paradigm (1966) judge if one specific number belongs to a set of numbersexemplifies the information prosessing theoriesthe stimuli has to be compared with each of the digits in the memory setthe information processing stages:9Perceive stimulus9=3?9=9?Make decisionGenerate response9=6?
14other approachesThe ecological approach: Cognition can be understood as the response to a relevant structure of the environmentSituated cognition: The social environmentPhysiology: Why not just study people’s brains while they do mathematics?! (100 Billion nerve cells in the brain)The computer has been an influential analogy for understanding the human mind. High level languages are translated into lower level statements to be executed in the computer. One gets a good understanding by knowing the high level languages.AI: If X is married to Y and is the mother of Z, then Y is likely to be the father of Z. Symbols and rulesCognitive neuroscience
15Good user interfaces versus bad user interfaces (visuality/mapping/feedback) MS applications / Apple Mobile phones Cars Doors Wash Machines Lego Video Machines FaucetsElevators
16the nervous systemnervous system: Brain+various sensory systems that gather information from parts in the bodyneuron: Cell that accumulates and transmits electricity, rate of firingcognition: Patterns of neural activityneurons responds to specific features of a stimulus, but not one single purposenot dual value as in computers 0 – 1brain codes information redundantly, pattern is not lost even if cells are missing
17The brainSeperate function areas in left and right brain partsLeft: Linguistic/analyticRight: Perceptual/spatialCentral nervous system: brain+spinal chordRight part of the body connected to the left hemisphere and oppositeHemispheres are connected with a broad band of fibers (corpus callosum)
18ConnectionismConncting basic neural elements for achieving higher-level cognitionPDP Parallel Distributed Processing (connectionist model by McClelland and Rumelhart)
19PerceptionHow to recognize what we encounter?Pattern recognitionInterpretation of informationVisual agnosia (dont recognize visual objects, but can recognize the same object from smell we, feel or sound)Two faces: Extraction and recognition
20Visual Information Perception Light passes through the lensFalls on the retinaLight is converted into neural energy through a photochemical processThe information progresses by various neural tracks to the visual cortexOn-off cellsBar detectors3DTexture gradientSmaller is further awayObjects closely packed togehterStereopsis (two eyes, slightlydifferent views)Motion Parallax (close objects move faster)
21Object-Centered Perception Gestalt Principles of Organization (Wertheimer 1912)Proximity; Elements close togetherElements that look alikeGood continuationClosure and good formSmallnessSorroundness
22Visual Pattern recognition Template Matching, retinal image transmittted to the brain,finding a correspondance between a pattern and a stimuliWhat about nonstandard letters?Feature analysisSeparateley recognize the features that make a pattern, for instance a letterObject recognitionFamiliar objects can be seen as a known configuration of simple components36 basic categories of sub-objects (geons)
23Speech recognitionGaps? Continous speech streamPhonemes, basic vocabulary of speech sound (school consists of the phonemes [s] [k] [ú] [l]Feature analysis of speechConsonantal featureVoicing, sip versus zipPlace of articualtion, [f] [v] bottom lip pressed agains front teethCategorical perception, perceive phonemes as coming from different categories even when they differ on a single continous dimension. [p] [b] (Studdart-Kennedy 1976)
24Context and Pattern Recognition T E C TSelfridge 1955Top-down processing, high level general knowledge contributes to the interpretationWOR WORD, WORK, WORN, WORMWORD*eel on the shoe *eel on the orange *eel on the axle
25We don’t know what we are talking about Hva er en snabel?Nese?
27Attention and performance Human information processing system is a limited resource systemAttetention: The allocation of the processing resourcesBroadbent (1958) The Filter Theory (bottleneck, two messages, one in each ear)Erikson & StJames (1986): The Spotlight Metaphor (Attention in certain angles)Neisser & Becklen (1976): Two films over anotherAttenuation theorySwitch attention after contextLate selection theorySelects after perceivingAvailable for a short time
28MemorySensory, short term (work, +-7), long term (events, skill)Information that are not attended will rapidly be lostSperling (1960): Partial-report procedure versus Whole-report-procedure. Equal result X M J RC N K PV F L BTreisman & Gelade (1980): Feature information must be in the focus of attention in order to for it to be syntesized into a pattern (recognise T’s)Iconic, echoic and haptic memoryConstantly overwritten
29Short-term memory or working memory Long-term memory Sensory memoriesShort-term memory or working memoryLong-term memoryAttentionRehearsal
31AutomaticityThe more a process has been practiced, the less atttention it requiresExamples of automated processes (requires little (none?) attention)Examples of controlled processes (requires attention)Schneider & Shifffrin: The amount of time to search for a target in a visual display depends on the degree of automaticity achieved in discrimi- nating that target from the distractors (e.g. Numbers from letters)The Stroop Effect: Difficult to stop automatic processing from executing
32The Stroop Effect, Dunbar & MacCleod (1984): RØD GRØNN GUL BLÅ GRØNN SORT HVIT RØD BLÅ GUL ROSA BLÅ LILLA GRØNN RØD BLÅ TURKIS RØD ORANGE HVIT GRØNN BRUN BLÅ GUL
34Dual Task PerformanceDepends on how automated processes arePlay piano and singWhen a person must make two responses in close succession, the second response can be delayed and interfered with by the first response.Single resource versus the multiple resource theory – different processing resources.William James (1890): ”Everybody knows what attention is. It is the takingpossesion by the mind, in a clear and vivid form, of one out of several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration of conciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawel from some things in order to deal effectively with others.”
35Reasoning ( deductive, inductive, abductive) Inferring information from what we already knowConclusions follow from their premisesModus ponensA כּ B A BA כּ B ~ A ~ BDe som har gått lederkurs, blir gode ledere.Oddmar har gått lederkurs.Oddmar er en god leder.De som har gått lederkurs, blir gode ledere.Oddmar har ikke gått lederkurs.Oddmar er ikke en god leder.
36Problem solvingLetter on one side, number on the other If a card has a vowel on one side of the card, it has an even number on the other.EK47Finding a solution to an unfamiliar taskBehaviorists: Responses of trial and errorGestalt: Reuse of knowledge and insightNewall and Simon: The problem space
37The way to goPut a lot of effort in the conceptual modelBe humbleNothing is obviousMappingMake things visibleRecognition is easier than recallDesign for users, not designersUser interfaces should be designed to be invisibleStribe for automated processesDesign for errorsStandardizeGive feedbackThe limited resource of our attention should be used for problemsolving, not for struggeling with the system