Presentation on theme: "?. Subject: Spørsmål Date sent: Fri, 12 Mar 2004 09:38:02 +0100 From: To: Hei! Hva er riktig å si når man ønsker å bestille 2 pølser, og pølsene skal."— Presentation transcript:
Subject: Spørsmål Date sent: Fri, 12 Mar :38: From: To: Hei! Hva er riktig å si når man ønsker å bestille 2 pølser, og pølsene skal ligge i hver sin lompe? Jeg bestilte 2 "pølse-med-lompe". Så ble jeg opptatt med noe annet, men da jeg åpnet posen oppdaget jeg det: Jeg hadde riktignok fått 2 pølser, men de lå i samme lompe! Hva burde jeg ha sagt? Jeg skal holde en forelesning klokken i dag, og tenkte å bruke "pølse-med-lompe"-paradokset som isbryter(!). Hadde det vært mulig å fått en uformell uttalselse innen den tid? Det hadde vært helt konge! Hilsen Ingerid Rødseth ______________________________ Ingerid Rødseth EDB Telecom Svar: Det er neppe mulig å slå fast at rent språklig er det riktig å si xxx. Spørsmålet har absolutt sine praktiske og pragmatiske sider, f.eks. hva som er vanlig å si i den situasjonen, hva slags kombinasjoner som er mest solgt, hvor godt personene kjenner hverandre osv. I en samtale skal en gjerne være så presis som nødvendig, men heller ikke mer. Når én person bestiller noe, regner kanskje ekspeditøren med at bestillingen gjelder én person, og at det er nok med én lompe. Jeg er ikke helt sikker på om du sa "to ganger pølse med lompe" f.eks.? Det burde holde. Ellers skulle også "to pølser i hver sin lompe" være nokså sikkert!! Med vennlig hilsen Marit Hovdenak rådgiver Norsk språkråd (http://www.sprakrad.no)http://www.sprakrad.no Postboks 8107 Dep, 0032 OSLO Besøk: C.J. Hambros pl. 5 Telefon: (s.bord), (dir.) Faks:
cognitive psychological phenomena in human computer interaction Ingerid Rødseth EDB Telecom
Human computer interaction Since early 80s Roots in ergonomics, World War II, MMI Multidiciplinary subject, an ideal designer should know: –Cognitive psychology –Ergonomics –Sociology –Computer science / engineering –Target business –Graphic design –Technical writing –Philosophy –Etc. No general and unified theory of HCI A marriage between art and science: The arcitecture analogy A system should be useful, usable and used No longer a stepchild
Modal versus modeless Buttons Behaviour
coginitive psychology- Ingerid Rødseth EDB Telecom Neisser (1967): ”Cognitive Psychology refers to all process by which the sensory input is Transformed Reduced Elaborated Stored Recovered And used” Reed(1988): ”Cognition is usually defined simply as the acquisition of knowledge. However, the asquisition and use of knowledge involves many skills”. Matlin (1983): ”Cognition involves how we acquire, store, and retrive knowledge”.
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cognitive psychology -attempts to understand basic mechanisms governing human thoughts -is the foundation for other areas within social sciences clinical psychology (malfunctions) Social psychology (individual behaviour in groups) Political science (percuasion) Sociology (organizing groups) Linguistics (features in languages) -has been the subject for scientific research only for a little more than 100 years.
psychology history Empiricism – all knowledge come from experience (Berkely, Locke, Hume) Nativism – people are born with a great deal of knowledge (Descartes, Kant) 1879 First laboratory for cognitive psychology, Wilhelm Wundt, Leipzig, Germany Introspection: Reporting the contents of your conciousness Ca Behaviorism (John Watson) Animal learning. No mental constructs.
Cognitive psychology-newer tradition Emerged Three influences –World War II, information theory, processing information, training soldiers, attention breakdown. Donald Broadbent; perception & attention –Artificial intelligence, Allan Newell, Herbert Simon –Linguistics, Naom Chomsky (MiT) Structure of language Ulric Neisser’s Cognitive Psychology Focused on perception and attention Cognitive science (Integrate Psychology, Philosophy, Linguistics, Neuroscience and AI) Computer simulation
information processing analyses These various approaches converged into a new approach in studying human cognition: IPA: How to process information Cognition / information processing as a set of steps Involves –Perceiving stimuli –Human memory –Decision making –Response generation
the Sternberg Paradigm (1966) judge if one specific number belongs to a set of numbers exemplifies the information prosessing theories the stimuli has to be compared with each of the digits in the memory set the information processing stages: Perceive stimulus 9=3? 9=9? 9=6? 9 Make decision Generate response
other approaches The ecological approach: Cognition can be understood as the response to a relevant structure of the environment Situated cognition: The social environment Physiology: Why not just study people’s brains while they do mathematics?! (100 Billion nerve cells in the brain) The computer has been an influential analogy for understanding the human mind. High level languages are translated into lower level statements to be executed in the computer. One gets a good understanding by knowing the high level languages. AI: If X is married to Y and is the mother of Z, then Y is likely to be the father of Z. Symbols and rules Cognitive neuroscience
Good user interfaces versus bad user interfaces (visuality/mapping/feedback) MS applications / Apple Mobile phones Cars Doors Wash Machines Lego Video Machines Faucets Elevators
the nervous system nervous system: Brain+various sensory systems that gather information from parts in the body neuron: Cell that accumulates and transmits electricity, rate of firing cognition: Patterns of neural activity neurons responds to specific features of a stimulus, but not one single purpose not dual value as in computers 0 – 1 brain codes information redundantly, pattern is not lost even if cells are missing
The brain Seperate function areas in left and right brain parts Left: Linguistic/analytic Right: Perceptual/spatial Central nervous system: brain+spinal chord Right part of the body connected to the left hemisphere and opposite Hemispheres are connected with a broad band of fibers (corpus callosum)
Connectionism Conncting basic neural elements for achieving higher-level cognition PDP Parallel Distributed Processing (connectionist model by McClelland and Rumelhart)
Perception How to recognize what we encounter? Pattern recognition Interpretation of information Visual agnosia (dont recognize visual objects, but can recognize the same object from smell we, feel or sound) Two faces: Extraction and recognition
Visual Information Perception Light passes through the lens Falls on the retina Light is converted into neural energy through a photochemical process The information progresses by various neural tracks to the visual cortex On-off cells Bar detectors 3D –Texture gradient Smaller is further away Objects closely packed togehter –Stereopsis (two eyes, slightly different views) –Motion Parallax (close objects move faster)
Object-Centered Perception Gestalt Principles of Organization (Wertheimer 1912) –Proximity; Elements close together –Elements that look alike –Good continuation –Closure and good form –Smallness –Sorroundness
Visual Pattern recognition Template Matching, retinal image transmittted to the brain, –finding a correspondance between a pattern and a stimuli –What about nonstandard letters? Feature analysis –Separateley recognize the features that make a pattern, for instance a letter Object recognition –Familiar objects can be seen as a known configuration of simple components –36 basic categories of sub-objects (geons)
Speech recognition Gaps? Continous speech stream Phonemes, basic vocabulary of speech sound (school consists of the phonemes [s] [k] [ú] [l] Feature analysis of speech –Consonantal feature –Voicing, sip versus zip –Place of articualtion, [f] [v] bottom lip pressed agains front teeth Categorical perception, perceive phonemes as coming from different categories even when they differ on a single continous dimension. [p] [b] (Studdart-Kennedy 1976)
Context and Pattern Recognition Selfridge 1955 –Top-down processing, high level general knowledge contributes to the interpretation WOR... WORD, WORK, WORN, WORM WORD *eel on the shoe *eel on the orange *eel on the axle T E C T
We don’t know what we are talking about Hva er en snabel? Nese?
Attention and performance Human information processing system is a limited resource system Attetention: The allocation of the processing resources Broadbent (1958) The Filter Theory (bottleneck, two messages, one in each ear) Erikson & StJames (1986): The Spotlight Metaphor (Attention in certain angles) Neisser & Becklen (1976): Two films over another Attenuation theory –Switch attention after context Late selection theory –Selects after perceiving –Available for a short time
Memory Sensory, short term (work, +-7), long term (events, skill) Information that are not attended will rapidly be lost Sperling (1960): Partial-report procedure versus Whole-report-procedure. Equal result XMJR CNKP VFLB Treisman & Gelade (1980): Feature information must be in the focus of attention in order to for it to be syntesized into a pattern (recognise T’s) Iconic, echoic and haptic memory Constantly overwritten
Memory Sensory memories Short-term memory or working memory Long-term memory
Automaticity The more a process has been practiced, the less atttention it requires Examples of automated processes (requires little (none?) attention) Examples of controlled processes (requires attention) Schneider & Shifffrin: The amount of time to search for a target in a visual display depends on the degree of automaticity achieved in discrimi- nating that target from the distractors (e.g. Numbers from letters) The Stroop Effect: Difficult to stop automatic processing from executing
Dual Task Performance Depends on how automated processes are Play piano and sing When a person must make two responses in close succession, the second response can be delayed and interfered with by the first response. Single resource versus the multiple resource theory – different processing resources. William James (1890): ”Everybody knows what attention is. It is the taking possesion by the mind, in a clear and vivid form, of one out of several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration of conciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawel from some things in order to deal effectively with others.”
Reasoning ( deductive, inductive, abductive) Inferring information from what we already know Conclusions follow from their premises Modus ponens –A כּ B A B –A כּ B ~ A ~ B De som har gått lederkurs, blir gode ledere. Oddmar har gått lederkurs. Oddmar er en god leder. De som har gått lederkurs, blir gode ledere. Oddmar har ikke gått lederkurs. Oddmar er ikke en god leder.
Problem solving EK47 Letter on one side, number on the other If a card has a vowel on one side of the card, it has an even number on the other. Finding a solution to an unfamiliar task Behaviorists: Responses of trial and error Gestalt: Reuse of knowledge and insight Newall and Simon: The problem space
The way to go Put a lot of effort in the conceptual model Be humble Nothing is obvious Mapping Make things visible Recognition is easier than recall Design for users, not designers User interfaces should be designed to be invisible Stribe for automated processes Design for errors Standardize Give feedback The limited resource of our attention should be used for problemsolving, not for struggeling with the system