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Master of Business Administration

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1 Master of Business Administration
Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg / University of Applied Sciences Master of Business Administration Module Culture & Politics: International Politics A HEARTILY WELCOME! Prof. Dr. Uwe HOLTZ 2./3. December 2011 1

2 Road Map Who we are Political Science > International Politics & Theories Culture (Amartya Sen) IP Agents > UN, States, Regional Groupings, NGOs … Ten Global Trends IP Theories UN incl. the Bonn based organizations > UNCCD Vision of a better world The Meaning of Development Neglect of Political System Issues (Wangari Matthai) Democracy and Human Rights

3 International Relations in the 21st Century > Millennium Declaration + MDGs
Relationship between Democracy, Good Governance and Development Foreign Relations and Development Cooperation of Germany and the EU – “new” global players Factors Responsible for (mal-)development – role of elites Three guest speakers: Peter Croll (BICC), Bärbel Dieckmann (Deutsche Welthungerhilfe), Ursula Mogg (former MP) Cross-cutting: NGOs

4 MBA NGO-Management, 3rd group, starting in September 2011

5 Regarding the IP Module, you are expected to answer 5 or 6 questions in the written exam (Klausur) scheduled for January 20, 2012 At the end of the MBA Programme „NGO Management“ you‘ll get your degree 5 5

6 Political science is an academic discipline that seeks to study
politics polity policy scientifically and to address empirical (factual) and normative (ethical) questions. 6 Source: Ellen Grigsby (2009): Analyzing Politics. An Introduction to Political Science, 4th ed., Wadsworth

7 International Politics / IP
IP: One of the most exciting subjects to study It deals with some of the central issues that affect our lives on our globe. The academic discipline of IP has traditionally focused on questions of peace and war, but in recent years this agenda has broadened to include issues such as development, climate and environment, human rights, human security and culture/religion. 7

8 Some political scientists regard culture as a potentially crucial factor shaping state and international policies. What is culture? In the UNESCO General Conference affirmed that “culture should be regarded as the set of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features of society or a social group, and that it encompasses, in addition to art and literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value systems, traditions and beliefs.”

9 Amartya Sen: How Does Culture Matter? (2004)
Given the pervasive influence of culture in human life - the real issue is how - not whether - culture matters: Culture is a constitutive part of development. Human beings influence and shape culture – and they are influenced by culture. However, culture is is not uniquely pivotal in determining our lives and identities. Culture and cultural factors influence economic behaviour, participation in societal and political interactions as well as orientations and values – positively and negatively. Culture is not a homogeneous attribute - there can be great variations even within the same general cultural milieu; culture does not sit still; cultures interact with each other. We cannot both want democracy, on the one hand, and yet, on the other, rule out certain choices, on traditionalist grounds, because of their “foreignness“. There are institutional demands for cultural democracy. Sen, born 3 November 1933, is an Indian economist who was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to welfare economics and social choice theory, and for his interest in the problems of society's poorest members. 9 9

10 While hunger rules peace cannot prevail.
Willy Brandt ( ) History has taught us that wars produce hunger, but we are less aware that mass poverty can lead to war or end in chaos. While hunger rules peace cannot prevail. He who wants to ban war, must also ban mass poverty. Source: North-South Report (1980): A Programme for Survival, An Introduction by W. B.: A Plea for Change - Peace, Justice, Jobs. London 10 10

11 The map on the front cover is based upon the PETERS projection rather than the more familiar MERCATOR projection: 11 11

12 IP = International Relations (IR)
IR represents the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states and regional groupings within the international system. It includes the roles of states, inter-governmental organisations (IGOs), NGOs and INGOs, multinational companies (MNCs or TNCs). It is considered as a branch of political science, but should be treated as an interdisciplinary field of study and research. It deals with global policy-making today and the complexities of economic and financial, social and political transformations that continue to reshape power.  12

13 Power, state, nation, and intergovernmental / international organizations – and for me democracy – are key concepts of political science. MNCs, IGOs and NGOs (non-state, voluntary groups that pursue political objectives) are more or less important than states (?) [Violent non-state actors, including groups such as Al-Qaeda ( > “new wars”) or criminal organizations, for example drug cartels] NGOs are challenging the nation-state's sovereignty over internal matters through advocacy for societal issues, e.g. human rights and the environment.

14 Have a look at the following ten trends which will influence and change international politics*
Trend 1: World Financial Crisis Trend 2: End of the G7/8’s Monopoly Trend 3: Climate Change Trend 4: Rearmament and Fragile Statehood Trend 5: Religion as a Factor Trend 6: Urbanisation Trend 7: Migration Trend 8: Inequality of “life chances” Trend 9: Internationalisation of Science/Technology Trend 10: New Governance Mechanisms (further trends mentioned and discussed in the class: Democracy, Food (In-) Security, International Crimes, Social Media) * Source: Development and Peace Foundation/Institute for Development and Peace (eds.) (2010): Global Trends Peace – Development – Environment

15 Trend 1: World Financial Crisis
The world financial crisis is a major setback to socioeconomic progress in large parts of the world, demonstrating conclusively that neoliberal paradigms are a spent force. The economic consequences are being felt not only by the wealthy economies but also, and especially, by developing countries that are heavily dependent on foreign trade (especially commodities) and foreign capital inflows. The economic progress achieved in recent years, especially in Africa, is at risk of being reversed. Many emerging economies will be weakened for a transitional period, although their significance as new drivers of the world economy will increase overall.


17 Trend 2: End of the G7/8’s Monopoly
The world financial and economic crisis has finally discredited the G7/8’s monopoly on exclusive club rule. The resurgence of more multilateral approaches is reflected in the G20’s assumption of key consultation and, in some cases, leadership functions.

18 Trend 3: Climate Change Climate change has become the main driver of global environmental change, with far-reaching implications for societies, economies and the international system. In vulnerable regions of the world, it is likely to trigger new conflict constellations as a consequence of food crises, a decrease in freshwater availability, storm and flood disasters, and crisis-induced migration.

19 Trend 4: Rearmament and Fragile Statehood
Security, as a policy field, is characterised by shifting and sometimes inconsistent trends: Armed conflicts have been in decline since 1993. But numerous countries continue to experience sporadic outbreaks of violence and are affected by fragile statehood; this applies especially to sub-Saharan Africa. In parallel, a decade of rearmament has been observed since the end of the 1990s. Multilateral arms control is in crisis, and a further proliferation of nuclear weapons is likely. [New threats for peace > Conflict prevention – human security]


21 Trend 5: Religion as a Factor
The West has long underestimated the significance of religion as a factor in international and transnational relations. In the academic discipline of “international relations” in particular, exercise of power and willingness to cooperate have generally been analysed in terms of the rational calculations of a “homo economicus”. By contrast, the assumption of power by Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran back in 1979 and the ending of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan by mujahideen fighters were some of the first signs that global politics is crucially influenced by politico-religious identities and ideologies as well.


23 Trend 6: Urbanisation The urbanisation process is steadily continuing.
As of 2007, more of the world’s people live in cities than rural regions, with most urban growth taking place in the emerging economies and developing countries. The rise of megacities, most of which are located in the developing countries, poses a major development challenge.

24 Trend 7: Migration The number of international migrants has increased threefold since 1960. Although the proportion of migrants in the world population is fairly stable, the relative importance of migrants in the “ageing” industrial societies is increasing. Migration has become the central human factor in transnational globalisation and, in view of the substantial rise in the number of women migrants, is increasingly acquiring a “female face”. As the dark side of globalisation, human trafficking has become a multi- billion-dollar industry.


26 Trend 8: Inequality of “life chances”
There continues to be extreme inequality of “life chances” between and within world regions and societies, with the gap continuing to widen in some cases. Sub-Saharan Africa in particular is lagging further and further behind; this region has bucked the global trend in that life expectancy here is decreasing, and as in South Asia, the health MDGs, for example, will not be achieved. In contrast, East Asia is a “winner region” – albeit accompanied by growing social polarisation.


28 Trend 9: Internationalisation of Science/Technology
Scientific and technological progress is becoming increasingly “internationalised” in its organisation. This is an outcome of greater market openness, but it is also a response to global problems. The ongoing conflicts of interest over rules to protect intellectual property rights remain difficult.

29 Trend 10: New Governance Mechanisms
The hierarchical approach to global governance is increasingly being supplemented – and indeed in some cases supplanted – by new horizontal governance mechanisms. These may be exclusive or inclusive in terms of the participation of various actors. They often facilitate solutions to problems where multilateral processes have stalled and hegemonic approaches are likely to fail. But they are not a panacea: multilateral governance structures remain indispensable in order to maximise coherence and provide a legitimate framework for action.


31 Main IP Theories Realism Idealism / liberalism Institutionalism
Regime theory Marxism 1. Realism focuses on state security and power above all else. Realists (Morgenthau) argue that states are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maximize their security and chances of survival. Any cooperation between states is explained as functional in order to maximize each individual state's security and interests. Neorealism or Structural Realism (Waltz) distinguishes the anarchy of the international environment from the order of the domestic one. In the domestic realm, all actors may appeal to, and be compelled by, a central authority - 'the state' or 'the government' - but in the international realm, no such source of order exists. 2. Idealism / liberalism arose after World War I in response to the inability of states to control and limit war in their international relations. Early adherents include Woodrow Wilson, who argued that states mutually gained from cooperation and that war was so destructive. Non-state actors and IGOs are important. A new version of “Idealism" that focused on human rigths as the basis of the legitimacy of international law was advanced by several scholars. 3. The growing interdependence throughout and after the Cold War through international institutions led to neo-liberalism being defined as Institutionalism. Daniel C. Thomas: Normative Institutionalism > In treaties and Council conclusions, EU Member States have formally and repeatedly identified support for democracy and the rule of law, human rights, conflict prevention, the strengthening of multilateral institutions, free trade and the promotion of development as the principal goals of EU foreign policy and external relations. In recent years, environmental protection has also emerged as a substantive EU norm. Neo-liberalism also contains an economic theory (Friedman) that is based on the use of open and free markets with little, if any, government intervention to prevent monopolies and other conglomerates from forming. 4. Regime theory is derived from the liberal tradition that argues that international institutions or regimes affect the behaviour of states (or other international actors) [Institutionalism]. It assumes that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. Regimes are, by definition, instances of international cooperation. While realism predicts that conflict should be the norm in international relations, regime theorists say that there is cooperation despite anarchy. Often they cite cooperation in trade, human rights and collective security among other issues. These instances of cooperation are regimes. The most commonly cited definition of regimes comes from Stephan Krasner. He defines regimes as "institutions possessing norms, decision rules, and procedures which facilitate a convergence of expectations." 5. At the heart of constructivism is the idea that significant aspects of international relations are socially constructed, that is, historically and socially contingent rather than necessary, inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential characteristics of world politics. Constructivism primarily seeks to demonstrate how many core aspects of international relations are, contrary to the assumptions of (Neo-)Realism and (Neo-)Liberalism, socially constructed, that is, they are given their form by ongoing processes of social practice and interaction. 6. Marxism. Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories of IR reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. Marxists view the international system as an integrated capitalist system in pursuit of capital accumulation and as the exploitation of developing countries by industrialized countries. 31


33 Two models of analysis for interpretation of international relations have been very influential: A. Realism asserts that Governments cannot count on the existence of a peaceful and cooperative human nature to produce harmonious interactions. States exist in a condition of anarchy in which there is no ultimate enforcer of rules. Foreign policy must be based on a state's need to protect and advance its own power, not on morality (if power and morality come into conflict). (“Realpolitik”) States are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maximize their security and chances of survival. International political relations are prone to conflict; state security is understood primarily as military security. Cf. Ellen Grigsby: Analyzing Politics. An Introduction to Political Science, 4., rev. ed.., Wadsworth 2009, , 256

34 B. Idealism (or liberalism) asserts that
States / governments should pursue ethical and moral principles in foreign policy. Human nature is rational and capable of peace. States mutually gain from international cooperation; they should promote human security (“quality-of-life security”). International organizations and institutions have the capacity to promote peace and human security, human rights and democracy. The international “regimes” affect the behaviour of states or other international actors (< Regime theory). States tend to exist in a world that looks increasingly interdependent to many idealists such as liberal institutionalists.

35 The Multipolar World and Transnational Networks
Networks are exercising increasing influence. As a result of international regimes, suprana-tional institutions, and transnational networks (TNNs), the nation-state’s power is limited. < Emerging Powers [BRICS] 35 Source: Robert Kappel (2010): On the Economics of Regional Powers: Comparing China, India, Brazil, and South Africa (GIGA), Hamburg

36 The most international address for IP is the UN (
The most international address for IP is the UN (* 1945) in New York with the 192 member-states (Idealism + Regime theory): The unique organization whose activities are universally legitimized. The UN plays a critical role in developing values and norms important for a broad range of activities of states and non-state actors. 36

37 The work of the United Nations:
reaches every corner of the globe best known for peacekeeping, peacebuilding, conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance there are many other ways the United Nations and its System (specialized agencies, funds and programmes) affect our lives and try to make the world a better place. works on a broad range of fundamental issues > - sustainable development, environment and refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament and non- proliferation, - promoting democracy, human rights, gender equality and the advancement of women, governance, economic and social development and international health, clearing landmines, expanding food production, and more, in order to achieve its goals and coordinate efforts for a safer world for this and future generations. 37


39 Very important directions for a better life – for a vision of a better world - are to be found in:
A. The UN Charter B. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights C. The Millennium Declaration and the MDGs

40 Objectives of the United Nations
A. Charter of the United Nations, signed on 26 June 1945 PREAMBLE WE THE PEOPLES …HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS To maintain international peace and security, To bring about by peaceful means adjustment or settlement of international disputes, To develop friendly relations among nations, To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems. PREAMBLE WE THE PEOPLES …HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS Article 1 The Purposes of the United Nations are: To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace; To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace; To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends. [U.H.: The UN are as strong as the member states are willing to provide the UN with the required means…] 40

41 B. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 10.12.1948
PREAMBLE Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, … …the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want … (< so-called 4 freedoms) Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, … Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations … Report of the United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on the work of the Organization General Assembly / Official Records Sixty-fifth Session, 2010 I. Introduction Economic volatility, eruptions of conflict, natural disasters, challenges to food security and strains on natural resources are unlikely to disappear. The United Nations has a concrete framework to guide its action: the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals. It has significant resources and knowledge to help address the current challenges, as well as increasingly robust partnerships with business, civil society and academia that will help elevate the response. These measures will be adopted only if the United Nations is able to mobilize collective global political leadership and will. II. Delivering results for people most in need A. Development 1. The Millennium Development Goals and the other internationally agreed development goals 2. The special needs of Africa B. Peace and security 1. Preventive diplomacy and support for peace processes 2. Peacekeeping 3. Peacebuilding C. Humanitarian affairs D. Human rights, the rule of law, genocide prevention and the responsibility to protect, and democracy and good governance 1. Human rights 2. Rule of law 3. Genocide prevention and the responsibility to protect 4. Democracy and good governance III. Securing global goods A. Climate change B. Global health C. Countering terrorism D. Disarmament and non-proliferation IV. Creating a stronger United Nations A. The Secretariat, the intergovernmental machinery, system-wide coherence and cooperation with regional organizations 1. The Secretariat 2. Intergovernmental machinery 3. System-wide coherence 4. Cooperation with regional organizations B. Global constituencies 1. Strengthening partnerships with civil society 2. Engaging the business community V. Conclusion Strengthening partnerships with civil society 158. The Organization is actively reaching out to civil society and encouraging increased citizen engagement in the formulation and implementation of international policy. It is employing both traditional means of outreach and more innovative techniques, including the use of new media tools that help to inform and inspire the next generation of the global citizenry. 159. The past year saw a dynamic collaboration between representatives of civil society and the United Nations on climate change, disarmament and women’s empowerment. The international community joined together in support of the “Seal the Deal!” campaign, a communications effort that helped to create massive global awareness of climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. More than 1,300 people, representing 55 countries and 340 non-governmental organizations, came together for the 62nd Annual Conference of the Department of Public Information for Non-Governmental Organizations, on the theme “For peace and development: disarm now!”, which was hosted by the Government of Mexico in Mexico City from 9 to 11 September. Non-governmental organizations participated in record numbers in the fifty-fourth session of the Commission on the Status of Women, commemorating the fifteenth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women. 41

42 C. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [without reference to a Main Committee (A/55/L.2)] 55/2. United Nations Millennium Declaration The General Assembly Adopts the following Declaration: United Nations Millennium Declaration I. Values and principles We, heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new millennium, to reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of a more peaceful, prosperous and just world. 2. We recognize that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual societies, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the world’s people, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the world, to whom the future belongs.

43 Shared responsibility
6. We consider certain fundamental values to be essential to international relations in the twenty-first century. These include: Freedom Equality Solidarity Tolerance Respect for nature Shared responsibility Freedom. Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people best assures these rights. Equality. No individual and no nation must be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured. Solidarity. Global challenges must be managed in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most. Tolerance. Human beings must respect one other, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of peace and dialogue among all civilizations should be actively promoted. Respect for nature. Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only in this way can the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be preserved and passed on to our descendants. The current unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the interest of our future welfare and that of our descendants. Shared responsibility. Responsibility for managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as threats to international peace and security, must be shared among the nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally. As the most universal and most representative organization in the world, the United Nations must play the central role.

44 Peace, security and disarmament Development and poverty eradication
In order to translate these shared values into actions, we have identified key objectives to which we assign special significance: Peace, security and disarmament Development and poverty eradication Protecting our common environment Human rights, democracy and good governance Protecting the vulnerable Meeting the special needs of Africa Strengthening the United Nations

45 The eight MDGs 2000/2001, UN Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Millennium Declaration, Sept. 2000: Peace, Security & Disarmament; Human Rights, Democracy and Good Governance # culture The German government's contribution to the realization of these goals is enshrined in its cross-departmental Program of Action 2015, for which the BMZ is the lead ministry.

46 The MDGs may pave the way to a more
peaceful, prosperous and just world. They are a – restricted, faulty – vision for a better word. The MDGs do not directly address some important issues such as democracy or peace – and some problems are underestimated (e.g. the instability of financial markets, population increase). Essential goals/targets/indicators are missing from the MDGs – especially in areas of industrialized countries’ commitments. The goals are ambitious - but progress is possible.

47 Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day  Target 2: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, incl. women and young people Target 3: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 

48 How to measure development?
The two most prominent figures are given by the WORLD BANK (GNI per capita) and the UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (Human Development Index)

49 World Bank (2011): World Development Report 2012, Washington
Gross national income (GNI) per capita is used to determine the following income classifications: low income, USD 1,005 or less in 2010; middle income, USD 1,006—$12,275; high income, USD 12,276 and above. A further division at GNI per capita USD 3,975 is made between lower-middle-income and upper-middle- income economies.

50 1. LICs (USD 1,005 or less in 2010): Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, D. R
1. LICs (USD 1,005 or less in 2010): Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, D.R. of Congo, Kenya, Nepal, Nigeria, Tanzania 2.a LMCs (USD 1,006-3,975): Angola, Cape Verde, India, Morocco … 2.b UMCs (USD 3,976-12,275): Botswana, China, Cuba, Colombia, FYR Macedonia, Mexico, Peru, Russian Federation … 3. HICs (USD 12,276 and above): Barbados, Croatia, Rep. of Korea, Germany, Taiwan, USA …

51 UNDP: Human Development Reports since 1990
UNDP’s Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: a long life (life expectancy) access to knowledge (literacy rate), a decent standard of living (using the power purchasing parity exchange rate). Silent on the quality of the political system

52 Calculating the HDI

53 Four groups of HDI countries
Low/medium/high/very high HD: A classification of countries based on the value of the HDI according to the most recent data. The ranges are for very high HDI: 47 countries or areas: e.g. Norway (rank 1), USA (4), Germany (9), Rep. of Korea (15), Greece (29), Barbados (47) for high HDI: 47 countries: Uruguay (47), Cuba (51), Mexico (57), Russian Federation (66), Costa Rica (69), Mauritius (77), FYR Macedonia (78), Peru (80), Brazil (84), Colombia (87), Iran (88), Tunisia (94) for medium HDI: 47 countries: Jordan (95), China incl. Taiwan (101), Egypt (113), Botswana (118), Namibia (120), South Africa (123), Indonesia (124), Morocco (130), India (134), Cape Verde (133), Ghana (135), Bhutan (141) for low HDI: 46 countries: Solomon Islands (142), Kenya (143), Bangladesh (146), Tanzania (152), Nigeria (156), Nepal (157), Uganda (161), Sudan (169), Afghanistan (172), Zimbabwe (173), Mali (175), Burkina Faso (181), Chad (183), D.R. Congo (187) – Video Report 2010 UNDP (2011): Human Development Report 2011, New York

54 Neglect of political system issues

55 Very often, development meant economic growth.
Development theories (modernisation, dependency) laid no great emphasis on the question of political systems. Very often, development meant economic growth. During the Cold War, the “West” and “East” were primarily looking for friends in the Third World and didn’t care much about the question if their “friends” were democrats or dictators. (aid darlings – aid orphans) 55 55

56 Wangari Maathai – Nobel Lecture Oslo, December 10,   Wangari Maathai – Nobel Lecture Oslo, December 10,   Although initially the Green Belt Movement’s tree planting activities did not address issues of democracy and peace, it soon became clear that responsible governance of the environment was impossible without democratic space. Therefore, the tree became a symbol for the democratic struggle in Kenya. … Through the Green Belt Movement, thousands of ordinary citizens were mobilized and empowered to take action and effect change. They learned to overcome fear and a sense of helplessness and moved to defend democratic rights. In time, the tree also became a symbol for peace and conflict resolution, especially during ethnic conflicts in Kenya when the Green Belt Movement used peace trees to reconcile disputing communities. As we progressively understood the causes of environmental degradation, we saw the need for good governance. Culture plays a central role in the political, economic and social life of communities. Indeed, culture may be the missing link in the development of Africa. Culture is dynamic and evolves over time, consciously discarding retrogressive traditions, like female genital mutilation (FGM), and embracing aspects that are good and useful. 56 56

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