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Research and HE systems in Europe Economia della conoscenza, Lezione 2.3.

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Presentation on theme: "Research and HE systems in Europe Economia della conoscenza, Lezione 2.3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research and HE systems in Europe Economia della conoscenza, Lezione 2.3

2 Content An introduction to the UK and F. The Bologna declarartion. Public research in Europe

3 ERAWATCH Le informazioni sul sito vi permettono unqualche comparabilita dei 4 sistemi considerati in termini di staff e budget totale per IES/HEI e centri di ricerca pubblici.

4 UK: the system ~131 HEI of which 89 universities and 42 Higher Education colleges and polytechnics. Autonomous institutions with NPO status (private but publicly funded); Further Education Colleges; Government labs (health, environment, etc.) Research Council Centres (medical, biomedical, physics). 4

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6 UK: funding streams Government Office for Science ( 40%) : – HEFCs: Teaching Research (RAE-REF) Capability research Fund Higher Education Innovation Fund Other research and teaching special needs – Research Councils Other ministries ( 10%) Student Loan Company and other fees ( 10%) About 60% Public funding 6

7 UK: funding streams PRIVATE FUNDING (40% funding): – Residence an catering – Overseas students – UK charities – Other research income – Other service income – Endowment 7

8 8

9 Funding of HE-funded institutions 9

10 UK Dep for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) HE funding through HEFCs Government Office for Science ( 40%) : – HEFCs: Teaching Research (RAE-REF) Capability research Fund Higher Education Innovation Fund Other research and teaching special needs 10

11 11

12 HEFC Research Funding Research funding is allocated via the quasi- market mechanism of expost assessment of research performance, the Research Assessment Exercise: – Edition 1986,89,92,96,01,08,14: 12

13 Research Councils Funding: Contractual funding Arts & Humanities Research Council Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council Economic & Social Research Council Medical Research Council Natural Environment Research Council Particle Physics & Astronomy Research Council

14 Research Funding 14

15 UK HE funding and the crisis Science and innovation investment framework ; Real increase year on year ~7%. BUT current crisis has provoked first a stop and than major cuts that will be introduce in of the order of 20% to 40% for teaching grant funding and constant or reducing budget for science. Grant budget for HE from £7.1bn to £4.2bn by (5,3bn in ). HEFCE Teaching budget 4,675 in will be significantly reduced and student loan company contribution increased with a graduate contribution system. 15

16 Teaching cuts: Introduction of tuition fees Tuition fees: £1000, 98; £3000, 04; £9000,12; Not for Scotland, partially paid back for welsh and norther ireland students. Graduate contribution with an income contingent (>£21,000) loan scheme. 16

17 Tuition fees – the role of overseas Tuition fees account for about 32% of current budget. About 1/3 is due to overseas students. 17

18 UK HE science funding and the crisis Science budget will be frozen at an annual £4.6bn till , equivalent to about 10% real decrease. See also the capital expenditure budget cuts and other departments cuts. 18

19 UK – info web Department of Business Innovation and Skills (http://www.bis.gov.uk/)http://www.bis.gov.uk/ – – – Higher Education Funding Council of England: Universities UK: Economic papers on innovation at BIS innovation-analysis/economics-papers

20 UK – info web Higher Education Policy Institute:

21 France

22 France 1 85 universities nel ( ) Grandes Ecoles e Grands Etablissements: – Ecole central – Ecole normal – Ecoles de commerce – Ecole nationales supérieures dingénieurs Reform of the university system - Law on the autonomy and responsibility of universities in 2007: 22

23 France 2: The reform of the university system Ministere l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche: – 1999 – Law for innovation and research – 2005 – Pact for research – 2006 – Law for research: Pôle de recherche et enseignement supérieur – PRES Réseaux Thématiques de Recherche Avancée, RTRA) – 2007 – Law on the autonomy of universities – 2008 – Strategic plan for CNRS – – major increase (7.5% 2008) in the budget (T and R) 23

24 France 3: HE funding and the crisis In 2009 research and teaching are the only budgets that did not get cut, increased of 6.5%. Also the 2010 budget law has had an increase in the research and teaching budget; Increased budget associated to new allocation procedures - competition, evaluation and selection to allocate added resources to the best performing institutions in the country. 24

25 France 4: The reform of the university funding system Slow but continuous move of budget from grant allocation to competitive systems : – In 2005 creation of the Agence Nationale de la Recherche ANR, budget increase (2005: 4%, 2007: 7%, 2009: 9% 820M). Development of an ex-post evaluation system: – Agence d'évaluation de la recherche et de l'enseignement supérieur-AERES Selection of university clusters of excellence (pole dexcellence universitaire ) with added public funding (Plan Campus). 25

26 France PROs Large number of public research organizations : – Large science and technology organisations: Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS),national de la recherche Institut national de la recherche Agronomique (INRA), Institut national de la recherche Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM) Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale etc.. – Other smaller centres for industrial and innovation research: National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks – INERIS,. National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks

27 France PROs 2 Reduction of importance: 80% of CNRS labs are unite mixte Major restructuring of CNRS and INSERM

28 Francia PROs 3 HEIsCNRSPROs Budget Staff Staff FTE Fonte: ERAWATCH. Spese in 2000, M

29 France info web Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR): Ministere l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche (MESR): recherche.gouv.fr/ recherche.gouv.fr/ Nouvelle universite:

30 The Bologna Declaration

31 1999 la dichiarazione di Bologna La European Higher Education Area;

32 SORBONNE DECLARATION FRANCE, ITALY, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND GERMANY SIGN A DECLARATION ON THE HARMONISATION OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM BOLOGNA DECLARATION TWENTY EUROPEAN MINISTERS IN CHARGE OF HIGHER EDUCATION LAY THE BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING A EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA BY 2010: IT BECOMES KNOWN AS THE BOLOGNA PROCESS PRAGUE COMMUNIQUÉ FOUR ADDITIONAL COUNTRIES JOIN THE PROCESS BERLIN COMMUNIQUÉ FORTY COUNTRIES ARE NOW INVOLVED, INCLUDING RUSSIA AND SOUTHEAST EUROPE – Bergen COMMUNIQUÉ 5 MORE COUNTRIES ACCEPTED; GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE 2006 – 46 CONTRIES INVOLVED IN THE PROCESS ABOUT 5600 INSTITUTIONS

33 1999 la dichiarazione di Bologna La European Higher Education Area; Undergraduate (Bachelor degree = Laurea triennale) and graduate (Master = Laurea Magistrale and PhD = Dottorato); ECTS (European Credit Transfer and accumulation System) = Crediti formativi universitari 60 per anno (lauree di 3 o 4 anni) => MOBILITA

34

35 Public research in Europe

36 Rapid expansion during the 1960s of – universities – government research institutions – research funding By 1980s expansion ends (not in all countries) – research funds remain static till late 1990s Development of public sector research (PSR)

37 Changing organisation of PSR Sectors Functions Government arrangements

38 Sectors of PSR Three main sectors – universities – non-university research organisations (CNR) – Basic and applied research. – government laboratories (Istituto Superiore di Sanita) Additional sectors in some countries – technical institutes to support industry – charitable foundations carrying out research

39 Functions of PSR Advancement of knowledge (not always the first function) Economic development (can come first) Support government policy formation and implementation Public welfare and safety Prestige activities and/ or mission-national champions

40 Traditional structure of PSR Types Functions * Universities Non-university research organisations (research institutes and agencies) Government laboratories Advancement of knowledge special interest (support agriculture, health, energy, environment) applied industrially relevant research (support economic development ) Support policy formation and implementation Prestige activities in "frontier science" *Main pillars of S&T policy

41 Management of PSR systems Government arrangements – ministerial responsibility for S&T: a) should science be considered together with education? b) should science and technology be the responsibility of the same ministry? c) should science be part of the Ministry of Industrys responsibility? – coordination among ministries (S&T financed by more ministries in a significant way)

42 Management of PSR systems Funding arrangements Changing location of research

43 Funding arrangements Diversity of arrangements. Two main models Research Council funding model – core funds for infrastructure + grants for research projects Block grant system – may be provided by both state and the regions Other sources of funds – regions, charitable foundations, contracts from government, industry, the EC

44 Funding arrangements (2) Emerging Trends: Research Council re-organisation (single, multiple RC) Lack of accountability for time academics spend on research erosion of block grant system and growth of competitive grant application Growing role for regions to fund research in larger countries Increasing pressure for PSR to raise funds from external agencies

45 Funding arrangements (3) Re-allocation of funds between research areas Less funds for – basic or "blue sky" research – traditional energy research v energy and the environment More funds for – applications-oriented research (health, environment) – research relevant to users – programmes of strategic research – priorities decided by government

46 Changing location of research Increasing role for universities Decreasing role for research institutes Both trends lead to – less research staff with permanent positions – more research staff on short-term contracts


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