Presentation on theme: "ASTROLOGY Is Astrology Pseudo-science or Science? By: Ingi Taha, Nada Ali, Mona el Beltagi and Shaymaa Hassan."— Presentation transcript:
ASTROLOGY Is Astrology Pseudo-science or Science? By: Ingi Taha, Nada Ali, Mona el Beltagi and Shaymaa Hassan
Definition of Astrology Astrology is the study of how events on earth correspond to the positions and movements of astronomical bodies. These astronomical bodies included are the sun, moon, planets and stars. Depending on the position of these bodies at the exact moment of a person's birth, Astrologers believe these bodies and their movements reflect that person's character. The knowledge of the person's character and their relation to the bodies enables astrologers to predict a person's destiny. This prediction is not limited to one person. A prediction could be for an individual, group or nation.
History of Astrology Astrology was created in 3000 BC was developed independently. The Chaldeans created the original form of Astrology. The Chaldeans lived in Babylonia. Currently, this location is Iraq. The Chinese were practicing astrology by 2000 BC. Other varieties formed in ancient India. Astrology also stemmed to the Mayans of Central America. By 500s BC, Astrology had spread to Greece. Astrology was widely practiced in Europe through the Middle Ages, despite the rejection of the Christian leaders (including Augustine). One objection of the Christian leaders was that Astrology challenged the fate vs. free will argument. Other great minds disagreed with the truth behind Astrology. Some felt the Astrology was created to set up a system to control and manipulate a culture. These opposing minds stress that there are no scientific facts to prove that Astrologer's methods are valid. Astrology has come in and out of popularity throughout history. Today, Astrology is followed more widely than ever before. Astrology has become much more assessable by 900 phone numbers. These 900 numbers enable caller to talk to live Astrologers, who forecast their personalized forecast.
Definition of Pseudoscience Pseudo science is: a body of knowledge, methodology, belief, or practice that is made to appear scientific, merely by using terms of science but which do not adhere to the scientific method, which lacks supporting evidence or plausibility, which otherwise lacks of scientific status.
Why astrology is considered a pseudoscience? According to Karl popper and others, because: a) Astrological predictions are always vague so that these can never be refuted using facts and research b) Theory based on misunderstanding of astronomy c) No progress of revision of the theory of astrology for thousands of years d) Selective in considering evidence to check validity of predictive capability. e) No attempt to critically re-evaluate the theory in relation to the new facts.
Horoscopes Horoscopes are one major example of Astrology. A horoscope is a diagram of the heavenly bodies showing the relative positions of the sun, moon, stars, and planets at a given time. The Zodiac divides the calendar year into 12 sections, and then each section is represented by a sign. The signs of the zodiac include Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn and Pisces. Astrologers assign every planet (including the sun and moon) with a particular sign of the Zodiac.
Horoscope love match: Aquarius woman - Libra man Astrologers claim that two certain horoscopes do not match together such as Libra and Aquarius. However, Angelina Jolie and Brad Bitt are a couple that respectively follow these horoscopes and they live happy together. The Libra man is an idealist whose romantic sexuality could lead the Aquarius woman deeply astray. The Libra man needs romantic conversations and the relationship with the Aquarius woman can be fascinating. The Aquarius woman - Libra man romance is a lively, fun-loving relationship with little emotional intensity.
Twins The case of the twins is another example of Astrology that proves that Astrology is Pseudo-science. The key is with fraternal twins: two individuals conceived and born at the same time, but through different eggs and sperm. Because of this, the DNA in each is unique. Astrology would predict that they should still live relatively similar lives (at least to the same degree that identical twins do), but genetics would not. According to actual research, the predictions of science prove to be true. Astrology loses. Further evidence on this point is provided by so-called "Astral Twins." These individuals are born at the same time and in the same area (the same hospital, for example). According to astrology, astral twins should also live essentially the same sort of lives because they are under the same celestial influences. Research, however, has proven such predictions wrong
Palm Reading and Astrology Palm Reading and Astrology may claim different future for each person. For example, Someone could be a Sagittarius and what is said in his horoscope is different than what his palm is saying. Palm reading and Horoscopes may tell different predictions.
Astrologers Point Of View Some astrologers claim that astrology is a science because it is based on empirical evidence: experience and observation. According to traditional definitions of science, astrology is scientific because it is a discipline which uses set rules to explain natural phenomena. Also, the Greek word 'scientia' simply means 'wisdom'. Some astrologers claim that traditional astrology is a science.
Science agrees that the celestial bodies act upon each other but, in order to describe this action it uses the concept of force. This concept is based on the Third Law of Dynamics as a principle to measure the forces. This gives the possibility of a quantitative evaluation to the influence of bodies themselves, of which Astrology cannot speak, in spite of the bombastic use of unwarranted words by astrologers. Phrases like "powerful influence of Jupiter from Aries" or "forceful influence of Sun from the house of Gemini" have no quantitative meaning: the influence they are talking about has not been quantified (yet). On the other hand one shouldn't have too much confidence in Science either, at least when it comes to the concept of force. Indeed, the Third Law, as accepted today, is just as unfalsifiable as the astrological assertions: there is no possibility of finding situations where it is false. Everything starts here with the observation that, when acting upon matter, a force is always resisted by a contrary force. The Third Law states that the two are equal in magnitude. As long as we limit its dominion only to matter, the Third Law is always true by its very nature: this is how it came to our senses!
Unfortunately, this law was also extended to action and reaction in general, no matter if they are done in the same point or not, and even to non-material structures. Indeed, we can imagine equilibrium of forces in a space point in general, even without considering it a material point. There is really no way of finding situations where the Third Law is false, if we extend the concept of force to include the action at distance. A situation appropriate for the falsification of the law in the sense of Popper is the action of two forces in two different points of space with no matter joining them. This is the essential attribute of the action at a distance, where the principle is usually supposed to work by default, just because we think of the force as of an independent concept. For instance, according to the Third Law the force of action of the Sun upon Earth must be equal with the force of action of Earth upon Sun, even though the first one acts at the location of Earth, while the second acts at the location of Sun. They are action and reaction!
In order to show that the gravitation is an inter-action (sic!) Newton imagined two globes rotating around each other and joined by a cord, thereby asserting that we can feel the force in the cord, and that force will be an indication of the relative motion of the two globes which, by the way, is an entirely true and even realizable fact: "For instance, if two globes, kept at a given distance one from another by means of a cord that connects them, were revolved about their common centre of gravity, we might, from the tension of the cord, discover the endeavor of the globes to recede from the axis of their motion, and from thence we might compute the quantity of their circular motions."
Here we are using the scientific method to see if Astrology is a true science or not! Finally, after all this discussion, do you think that Astrology should be considered as Pseudo-science or Science?