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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 1 of 19 Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada Prentice-Hall © 2002 Chapter 1: MatterIts Properties and Measurement General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 2 of 19 Contents P Physical properties and states of matter P Système International Units P Uncertainty and significant figures P Dimensional analysis http://cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/chapter1/deluxe.html

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 3 of 19 Properties of Matter Matter: Occupies space, has mass and inertia Composition:Parts or components ex. H 2 O, 11.9% H and 88.81% O Properties:Distinguishing features physical and chemical properties

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 4 of 19 States of Matter

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 5 of 19 Classification of Matter

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 6 of 19 Separations

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 7 of 19 Separating Mixtures mixture Chromatography

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 8 of 19 Significant Figures Number 6.29 g 0.00348 g 9.0 1.0 10 -8 100 eggs = 3.14159 Count from left from first non-zero digit. Adding and subtracting. Use the number of decimal places in the number with the fewest decimal places. 1.14 0.6 11.676 13.416 Significant Figures 3 3 2 2 infinite various 13.4

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Prof G. I. Csonka General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 9 of 19 Significant figures Multiplying and dividing. Use the fewest significant figures. 0.01208 0.236 Rounding Off 3 rd digit is increased if 4 th digit 5 Report to 3 significant figures. 10.235 12.4590 19.75 15.651. 10.2 12.5 19.8 15.7 = 0.0512 = 5.12 10 -2

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 10 of 19 Units S.I. Units Lengthmetre, m MassKilogram, kg Timesecond, s TemperatureKelvin, K QuantityMole, 6.022×10 23 mol -1 Derived Quantities ForceNewton, kg m s -2 PressurePascal, kg m -1 s -2 EenergyJoule, kg m 2 s -2 Other Common Units LengthAngstrom, Å, 10 -8 cm VolumeLitre, L, 10 -3 m 3 EnergyCalorie, cal, 4.184 J Pressure 1 Atm = 101.325 kPa 1 Atm = 760 mm Hg

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 11 of 19

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 12 of 19 Temperature

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 13 of 19 Relative Temperatures

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 14 of 19 Volume

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 15 of 19 Density = m/V m=V V=m/ g/mL Mass and volume are extensive properties Density is an intensive property

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 16 of 19 Conversion What is the mass of a cube of osmium that is 1.25 inches on each side? Have volume, need density = 22.48g/cm 3

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 17 of 19 Wrong units The Gimli Glider, Q86, p30

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 18 of 19 Uncertainties Systematic errors. –Thermometer constantly 2°C too low. Random errors –Limitation in reading a scale. Precision –Reproducibility of a measurement. Accuracy –How close to the real value.

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Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry: Chapter 1 Slide 19 of 19 End of Chapter Questions 1, 3, 5, 12, 14, 17, 18, 20, 30, 41, 49, 50, 61, 72, 74, 79

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