Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 1 of 32 Chapter 8: The Atmospheric Gases and Hydrogen Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 1 of 32 Chapter 8: The Atmospheric Gases and Hydrogen Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 1 of 32 Chapter 8: The Atmospheric Gases and Hydrogen Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada Prentice-Hall © 2002 General Chemistry Principles and Modern Applications Petrucci Harwood Herring 8 th Edition

2 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 2 of 32 Contents 8-1The Atmosphere 8-3Nitrogen 8-4Oxygen 8-5The Noble Gases 8-6Hydrogen Focus on The Carbon Cycle

3 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 3 of The Atmosophere

4 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 4 of 32 Composition of Dry Air trace

5 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 5 of 32 Water Vapor n H 2 O P H 2 O in air. Relative Humidity = P H 2 O (actual) P H 2 O (max) 100%

6 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 6 of 32 Chemicals from the Atmosphere

7 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 7 of Nitrogen

8 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 8 of 32 Haber Bosch Process

9 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 9 of 32 Anhydrous Ammonia as Fertilizer

10 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 10 of 32 Nitrogen Oxides

11 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 11 of 32 Nitric Acid Production 4 NH 3 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO(g) + 6 H 2 O(l) 2 NO(g) + O 2 (g) 2 NO 2 (g) 3NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) 2 HNO 3 (aq) + NO(g) Pt Oxidizing acid. Nitration of organic compounds.

12 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 12 of 32 Nitroglycerine

13 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 13 of 32 Smog Sunlight plus products of combustion – photochemical smog.

14 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 14 of Oxygen Most abundant of elements in Earths crust.

15 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 15 of 32 Electrolysis

16 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 16 of 32 Ozone O 3 is an allotrope of oxygen. An excellent oxidizing agent. 3 O 2 (g) 2 O 3 (g) H ° = +285 kJ O 2 + UV radiation 2 O M + O 2 + O O 3 + M * O 3 + UV radiation O 2 + O O 3 + O 2 O 2 H ° = kJ

17 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 17 of 32 Ozone Depletion

18 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 18 of 32 Ozone Depletion O 3 + NO NO 2 + O 2 NO 2 + O NO + O 2 O 3 + O 2 O 2 Natural: O 3 + Cl ClO + O 2 ClO + O Cl + O 2 O 3 + O 2 O 2 Human activity: CCl 2 F 2 + UV radiation CClF 2 + Cl

19 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 19 of The Noble Gases In 1785 Cavendish could not get all the material in air to react in an electric discharge. 100 years later Rayleigh and Ramsay isolated argon. –Greek argosthe lazy one.

20 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 20 of 32 Noble Gases Used in light bulbs, lasers and flash bulbs. He and Ar are used as blanket materials to keep air out of certain systems. He is used as a breathing mixture for deep diving applications. Superconducting magnets use He(l) as coolant.

21 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 21 of 32 Helium

22 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 22 of Oxides of Carbon 370 ppm CO 2 in air. CO only minor. Rich combustion: Lean combustion: C 8 H 18 (l) O 2 8CO 2 (g) + 9 H 2 O(l) C 8 H 18 (l) + 12 O 2 7CO 2 (g) + CO(g) + 9 H 2 O(l)

23 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 23 of 32 Hemoglobin

24 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 24 of 32 Industrial Preparation of CO 2

25 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 25 of 32 Greenhouse Effect a)Incoming sunlight hits the earths surface. b)Earths surface emits infrared light. c)IR absorbed in atmosphere by CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Atmosphere warms up.

26 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 26 of 32 Global Warming Predict 1.5 to 4.5°C average global temperature increase. Computer models.

27 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 27 of Hydrogen Minor component of atmosphere. 90% of atoms and 75% of universe mass. Produced using the watergas reactions: C(s) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + H 2 (g) CO(g) + H 2 O(g) CO 2 (g) + H 2 (g) Or by the reforming of methane: CH 4 (g) + H 2 O(g) CO(g) + 3 H 2 (g)

28 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 28 of 32 Compounds of Hydrogen Covalent hydrides –HCl, NH 3 Ionic Hydrides –CaH 2, NaH

29 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 29 of 32 Uses of Hydrogen Hydrogenation reactions

30 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 30 of 32 Uses of Hydrogen

31 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 31 of 32 Focus on The Carbon Cycle

32 Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 32 of 32 Chapter 8 Questions 1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 23, 29, 35, 41, 45, 53, 60, 63.


Download ppt "Prentice-Hall © 2002General Chemistry: Chapter 8Slide 1 of 32 Chapter 8: The Atmospheric Gases and Hydrogen Philip Dutton University of Windsor, Canada."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google