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Survey of the Animal Industry Chapter 4 Poultry and Egg Products.

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Presentation on theme: "Survey of the Animal Industry Chapter 4 Poultry and Egg Products."— Presentation transcript:

1 Survey of the Animal Industry Chapter 4 Poultry and Egg Products

2 Poultry Meat and Egg Production Broiler Chickens makes up most of the worlds production of poultry meat Other meats consumed turkeys, roaster chickens, mature laying hens, ducks, geese, pigeons, guinea Most are slaughter by large companies that are vertically integrated 2001 Sales for top 2 companies Tyson Foods $25 billion Perdue Farms $2.5 billion

3 Composition Meat Dressing percentage Chickens78% Turkeys83% Edible raw meat from the carcass Chickens67% Turkeys78%

4 Composition of Chicken and Turkey A comparison is shown on table 4.3 on page 79 Dark meat compared to white meat higher in calories Lower in protein higher cholesterol

5 Eggs Structure Is diagramed on page 79 figure 4.1 Shell 94% calcium carbonate Contains 7000 to 17,000 pore spaces for the exchange of moisture and carbon dioxide Take a fresh egg and hold it in front of a bright light and you can see the pore spaces Surrounded by the cuticle preserves freshness and blocks micro organisms entry into the egg Two membranes are just inside the shell Attached to the shell Other encloses the eggs contents

6 Eggs Structure Air cell air pocket that forms between the inner and outer membranes

7 Eggs Egg White (albumen) Has Four Distinct layers Chalaziferous layer -- surrounds the yolk and keeps it centered in the egg Twisted and squeezes out the thin albumen Chalazae Thick Albumen Thin Albumen Highest protein content in the egg

8 Eggs Structure Yolk Yellowish center of the egg Surrounded by the vitelline membrane- a thin, transparent covering Relatively high fat and protein content

9 Egg Weight Average is 2 oz. With a range of 1.5 to 2.5 oz. Parts that make up the weight Shell and membranes 11% Albumen58% Yolk31%

10 Poultry Products Meat More than 60% of all broilers leave the processing plant as cut-up chicken or selected parts 1 out of every 8 lb. are processed now and larger amounts are expected in the future Consumers respond to value added products that cut down on the amount of preparation time need to make a meal 50% of broilers, fowl(mature chickens) and turkeys are process beyond the parts or ready to cook stage

11 Poultry Products Boned and formed products turkey roll fingers nuggets Cut and diced salads and casseroles Canned and ground Cured and smoked products

12 Eggs Eggs come naturally prepackaged for sale Further processing of shell eggs produce Pasteurized liquid eggs Powdered eggs This processing allows for: easier transportation of eggs longer shelf life Increased food safety

13 Eggs Shell color Some lay white Some lay brown Color comes from ooporphyrin – reddish- brown pigment of the blood There is no significant difference between the eggs in nutritional value

14 Feathers and down Down -- small soft feather found under the out feathers of ducks and geese Older birds produce the best down Takes 4 ducks or 3 geese to make 1 lb. of feather and down mix of which 15-25% is down Used in the manufacturing of many things 90% of the feathers and down used in this country are imported

15 Other Products and By products Goose livers Produced by force feeding corn to geese 3 times a day for 4 to 8 weeks Produces a liver that is 2 lbs. each Hydrolyzed feather meal poultry meat and bone scraps Both are used in animal feeds

16 Nutritional considerations Nutritional value of meat Protein White meat is 33% protein Dark meat is 28% protein Is easily digested and contains all of the essential amino acids Fat Poultry is lower in fat than a lot of meats – if eaten with out the skin Vitamins Excellent source of vitamin A Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin

17 Nutritional Value of eggs High nutrient density Excellent source of Protein high in readily digestible proteins Large amount of amino acids Eggs are a least cost source of protein Vitamins A, D, E, Folic Acid, Riboflavin, B12 and Pantothenic Acid Minerals -- Phosphorus, Iodine, Iron and Zinc

18 Nutritional Value of Eggs One egg supplies a high amount of the Nutritional requirements for a day Eggs are High in Cholesterol and fat Most of the fat and cholesterol are concentrated in the Yolk Ideas for reducing intake of fat and cholesterol from eggs Limit yolk consumption to 1 serving Replace the yolk by adding 2 egg whites instead

19 Consumption Meat Chicken Highest per capita consumption is in Antigua United States has a high per capita consumption It is approximately 90 lb. or ½ of the total meat consumption Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and other fast food restaurants have increase the speed of preparing and their consumption Heavy hens account for 10% of the poultry meat consumed by Americans Turkey Consumption has increased from 1.7 lb. to 18 lb. in 2001 Most of the increase is due to processed parts In past years turkey was mainly consumed on holidays

20 Consumption Eggs Consumption is 235 eggs per year and is down 85% consumed as shell eggs Per capita consumption is near the production of one hen a year which is 254

21 Marketing Large amounts of meat are exported Most of the meat in the market is from broilers More than 900 million lb. per year 100 million dozen eggs are exported from the US annually Ways sold Chicken is sold fresh Turkey is sold frozen

22 Marketing Ways Sold Most chicken is package for sale within 7 days of processing Proper refrigeration can extend the shelf life beyond its expiration date up to 3 days (28- 35 o F) Most poultry meat is inspected by state and federal inspectors 40% of broilers are marketed under a brand name

23 Marketing Turkeys Before the 1950s 90% of turkey sold were for the holidays of Thanksgiving and Christmas Now less that 40% are sold during this time Due to increase in offerings of preprocessed turkey.

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