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Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No. 2003-38411-13479 and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University,

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Presentation on theme: "Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No. 2003-38411-13479 and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract The Science Behind the Egg

2 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Graphic from American Egg Board website at

3 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Egg Structure Cuticle Shell Membranes Albumen Yolk

4 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Cuticle Acts as a lubricant during the laying process Plugs pores Reduces moisture and gas loss Breaks down over time Can be damaged during washing

5 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Shell Color determined by breed or strain of bird Composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate with small amounts of sodium, potassium and magnesium Serves as a package for contents Contains thousands of pores

6 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Shell Membranes Two protein fiber membranes Separate to form air cell Air cell increases as moisture and carbon dioxide is lost from the egg.

7 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Albumen White/clear portion of egg contents Four distinct layers Water is primary component Egg quality determination

8 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Yolk Vitelline membrane surrounds yolk Good source of nutrients The composition of yolk lipid is about 65.5% triglyceride, 28.3% phospholipid, and 5.2% cholesterol. Fatty acid composition in the yolk is influenced by the type of fat in the hens diet

9 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Egg Component % Protein % Lipid % Carbohydrate % Ash Albumen Yolk Whole Egg

10 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract How would you describe a high quality egg?

11 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Quality measurements: Air cell size Albumen height and diameter Vitelline membrane strength

12 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Air cell Generally the larger the air cell the older the egg Measured by candling

13 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract How could you rapidly age an egg so that the air cell would increase in size?

14 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Refrigeration keeps the air cell small so you could rapidly age the egg by exposing it to higher temperatures. 1 day at room temperature equals 7 days in the refrigerator

15 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Albumen height and diameter A thicker more compact albumen denotes higher quality

16 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Which egg is higher quality? Why? A B

17 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract The one labeled A is higher quality because the albumen (egg white is more compact) and the height of the yolk and albumen is higher indicating there has been less breakdown of the vitelline (yolk) membrane and albumen.

18 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Vitelline Membrane As the vitelline membrane ages: it becomes easier to break it stretches and the yolk flattens it allows more moisture to move between the yolk and albumen

19 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Egg Safety Until the 1990s, the contents of an intact eggs was thought to be sterile 1 in 20,000 raw eggs have a chance of being contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis Eggs should be thoroughly cooked before eating

20 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Can you get avian influenza from eating an egg?

21 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract No. The temperatures during pasteurization and cooking eggs and egg products is more than adequate to inactive any virus. For more information visit

22 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Nutrition Egg protein is of such high quality that it is used as the standard by which other proteins are compared. Eggs have a biological value (efficacy with which protein is used for growth) of 93.7%. Comparable values are 84.5% for milk, 76% for fish, and 74.3% for beef. Egg yolk contains lecithin which is a good emulsifier. Egg contain every essential amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin (except vitamin C) and mineral needed by humans.

23 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Cholesterol Some individuals are more sensitive to the effects of dietary cholesterol (15-20% of the population) All the cholesterol in an egg is found in the yolk not in the white

24 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract For more information on nutritional benefits from eggs go to

25 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Trivia* A hen requires 24 to 26 hours to produce an egg. Thirty minutes later, she starts all over again. The egg shell may have as many as 17,000 tiny pores over its surface. Through them, the egg can absorb flavors and odors. Storing them in their cartons helps keep them fresh. Eggs age more in one day at room temperature than in one week in the refrigerator. About 240 million laying hens produce approximately 5.5 billion dozen eggs per year in the United States. *American Egg Board website

26 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Trivia continued: White shelled eggs are produced by hens with white feathers and ear lobes. Brown shelled eggs are produced by hens with red feathers and red ear lobes. To tell if an egg is raw or hard-cooked, spin it! If the egg spins easily, it is hard-cooked but if it wobbles, it is raw. If an egg is accidentally dropped on the floor, sprinkle it heavily with salt for easy clean up. Egg yolks are one of the few foods that naturally contain Vitamin D. Yolk color depends on the diet of the hen. Natural yellow-orange substances such as marigold petals may be added to light-colored feeds to enhance colors. Artificial color additives are not permitted. Occasionally, a hen will produce double-yolked eggs throughout her egg- laying career. It is rare, but not unusual, for a young hen to produce an egg with no yolk at all.

27 Funded by: USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant Agreement No and Poultry Products Safety & Quality (PPSQ) Program Auburn University, Alabama © 2006 The Virtual Chicken: The Female Reproductive Tract Virtual Chicken The Female Reproductive Tract Summary: Structure: You can learn a lot about the egg by analyzing its structure. Quality: Quality can be measured by visually observing the broken out egg. Safety: Storing eggs in the refrigerator and cooking them thoroughly before eating will insure egg safety. Nutrition: Egg are an economical nutrient dense food.


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