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Openness and Higher Education University of Michigan January 12, 2009 January 12, 2009 Elliot E. Maxwell Elliot E. Maxwell.

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Presentation on theme: "Openness and Higher Education University of Michigan January 12, 2009 January 12, 2009 Elliot E. Maxwell Elliot E. Maxwell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Openness and Higher Education University of Michigan January 12, 2009 January 12, 2009 Elliot E. Maxwell Elliot E. Maxwell

2 Never Shared Proprietary Software Open Source World Wide Web ClosedOpen Wikipedia

3 …openness is not binary ; information or processes are not open or closed. They sit on a broad continuum stretching from closed to open, based on their accessibility and responsiveness … …if information is not available or available only under restrictive conditions it is less accessible and therefore less open. …if information can be modified, repurposed, and redistributed freely it is more responsive, and therefore more open. Openness is facilitated by IT but not dependent on IT A Few Thoughts On Openness

4 …but greater openness is not always the best solution… Privacy, security, protecting the rights of creators, fostering competition, are among values that might limit openness Privacy, security, protecting the rights of creators, fostering competition, are among values that might limit openness The purpose and context are critical to determine the appropriate degree of openness The purpose and context are critical to determine the appropriate degree of openness

5 Openness and Value Creation I The traditional theory of Intellectual Property sees control as central to value creation and, therefore, innovation. It focuses on the first creator The traditional theory of Intellectual Property sees control as central to value creation and, therefore, innovation. It focuses on the first creator Providing control to the creator (or the rights holder) allows the innovation to be monetized through licensing etc Providing control to the creator (or the rights holder) allows the innovation to be monetized through licensing etc The greater the control (longer terms, higher penalties for infringement) the greater the incentive for innovation by first creators, but it reduces the incentives for follow-on innovators The greater the control (longer terms, higher penalties for infringement) the greater the incentive for innovation by first creators, but it reduces the incentives for follow-on innovators Access control is costly and never perfect Access control is costly and never perfect Follow-on innovators outnumber first creators Follow-on innovators outnumber first creators

6 Openness and Value Creation II Creating value from sharing offers a mirror image to the traditional view of IP and control Creating value from sharing offers a mirror image to the traditional view of IP and control The wider the sharing, the greater the openness, the more potential value from follow-on innovators. The wider the sharing, the greater the openness, the more potential value from follow-on innovators. Modifying, copying, and distributing are cheap Modifying, copying, and distributing are cheap With enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow, but which eyeballs will discover the bug? With enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow, but which eyeballs will discover the bug?

7 Products of Increased Openness Wikipedia Wikipedia Public Library of Science (PLoS) Public Library of Science (PLoS) YouTube and user-generated content of all kinds YouTube and user-generated content of all kinds Collaborative filtering Collaborative filtering Mash-ups and Remixes Mash-ups and Remixes Craigslist Craigslist Open innovation e.g. P&GFrom not invented here to proudly discovered elsewhere (is this just outsourcing R&D? Who gets the value?) Open innovation e.g. P&GFrom not invented here to proudly discovered elsewhere (is this just outsourcing R&D? Who gets the value?) Tinkering and other user-led innovation Tinkering and other user-led innovation Reporting of all clinical trials, even failures Reporting of all clinical trials, even failures

8 Open Educational Resources Open Educational Resources OER exemplifies the potential of greater openness but many issues remain OER exemplifies the potential of greater openness but many issues remain Supply side focus Supply side focus Evaluation Evaluation Comparative effectiveness Comparative effectiveness Incentives for participation and use Incentives for participation and use Intellectual property rules and licenses Intellectual property rules and licenses Interoperability Interoperability Learning how to collaborate Learning how to collaborate

9 Openness in Teaching and Learning Digital materials offer new opportunities particularly for assessment and feedback benefiting students, teachers, the creators of educational materials, and learning scientists. Digital materials offer new opportunities particularly for assessment and feedback benefiting students, teachers, the creators of educational materials, and learning scientists. On-line education offers new opportunities for reaching the underserved here and around the world On-line education offers new opportunities for reaching the underserved here and around the world We need better data on: We need better data on: –Student progress –Educational outcomes –Factors that favor or impede student success. –Factors that favor or impede student success. We need research on: We need research on: –Comparative effectiveness of digital educational materials –Best practices for online, face-to-face and blended education

10 Openness in Lab Experiences Support the establishment of fab labs in conjunction with community colleges, in cooperation with business owners and labor unions in areas of high unemployment Support the establishment of fab labs in conjunction with community colleges, in cooperation with business owners and labor unions in areas of high unemployment Support the creation of high-quality on-line substitutes for hands on laboratory experiences Support the creation of high-quality on-line substitutes for hands on laboratory experiences Fab Labs: small scale workshops with an array of computer controlled tools that can be used to make almost everything

11 Openness in Research Increased collaboration and immediate disclosure of results is changing the knowledge creation and dissemination model Increased collaboration and immediate disclosure of results is changing the knowledge creation and dissemination model Open-access journals are challenging proprietary models Open-access journals are challenging proprietary models Institutional digital repositories are emerging offering global access to research Institutional digital repositories are emerging offering global access to research Our methods of recognizing scholarly achievement havent caught up to these changes Our methods of recognizing scholarly achievement havent caught up to these changes We need research on: We need research on: –The impact of immediate-release policies and open- access publishing on tenure and advancement practices –New methods of peer review and evaluation in the age of digital scholarship –Best practices for effective collaboration –Standards for meta-data for digital repositories

12 Intellectual Property Review and recalibrate IP rules to recognize the increasing importance of users as follow-on innovators. Review and recalibrate IP rules to recognize the increasing importance of users as follow-on innovators. Extend permitted uses of proprietary materials under educational exceptions for non commercial use beyond traditional classrooms Extend permitted uses of proprietary materials under educational exceptions for non commercial use beyond traditional classrooms Re-evaluate Bayh-Dole to favor more open licensing Re-evaluate Bayh-Dole to favor more open licensing Improve access to orphan works Improve access to orphan works Orphan works – copyright holders are unreachable, on the marketplace for search and on the online retailing of digital works Bayh-Dole Act - aimed to encourage patenting and commercialization of federally funded university research

13 Openness in Support Services We are not taking full advantage of greater openness in support services We are not taking full advantage of greater openness in support services Government should: Government should: –Fund the creation and distribution of open online materials such as those aimed at potential applicants for federal financial assistance –Support increased use of online means of providing counseling and tutoring, including peer to peer efforts –Support increased training for faculty in the area of online education

14 Increasing Access to Information The public-access policy for NIH funded researchpublic disclosure within 12 months of publication--should be preserved and extended to cover: The public-access policy for NIH funded researchpublic disclosure within 12 months of publication--should be preserved and extended to cover: –All non-classified research funded by the 11 federal agencies providing over $100 million each in research support –Publicly funded research at institutions of higher education at the state and local level The NIH public-access policy, should be extended, under appropriate conditions, to primary data resulting from federally funded research and data gathered in support of government regulatory activities The NIH public-access policy, should be extended, under appropriate conditions, to primary data resulting from federally funded research and data gathered in support of government regulatory activities Federal funding agencies should include funds to pay for publication in open access journals Federal funding agencies should include funds to pay for publication in open access journals

15 Transparency and Choice We know too little about what a degree means or about the value-add of institutions of higher education We know too little about what a degree means or about the value-add of institutions of higher education We have restricted the role of the federal government in establishing minimum quality standards and improving performance in higher education We have restricted the role of the federal government in establishing minimum quality standards and improving performance in higher education Federal policy should support: Federal policy should support: –Development of compatibility, comparability, and portability of degrees and certificates –Increase transparency regarding the educational outcomes at, and the value-added, by institutions of higher education –Broader access to information held by institutions, accrediting bodies, and the government itself should become the norm Government should encourage accrediting agencies to increase their focus on learning outcomes and the performance of their members in achieving them, and on students rather than on institutions Government should encourage accrediting agencies to increase their focus on learning outcomes and the performance of their members in achieving them, and on students rather than on institutions

16 Compatibility, Comparability, and Transparency regarding Degrees Support research on improving the ability to assess the achievement of learning outcomes including examinations that would more effectively demonstrate mastery for purposes of degrees and certification Support research on improving the ability to assess the achievement of learning outcomes including examinations that would more effectively demonstrate mastery for purposes of degrees and certification Charge the National Endowments for the Arts and the Humanities, the Department of Education, and the National Academies, as appropriate, to support efforts by academic and professional societies to develop relevant learning outcomes and assessment measures Charge the National Endowments for the Arts and the Humanities, the Department of Education, and the National Academies, as appropriate, to support efforts by academic and professional societies to develop relevant learning outcomes and assessment measures

17 New Means of Certification New means to certify mastery on a global scale are likely to emerge due to: New means to certify mastery on a global scale are likely to emerge due to: –Rise of OER and online education –Lack of places at institutions of higher education –Desire by self-directed learners (half of MITs OpenCourseWare downloaders) to demonstrate mastery –Failure of existing system to serve needs of learners, employers, etc. MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) – MIT project started in 2002 which posts course materials on the web

18 For further information contact For further information contact


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