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Recent Research on the Impact of Increased Openness and How to Benefit from It Elliot E. Maxwell Fellow, Communications Program, Johns Hopkins University.

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Presentation on theme: "Recent Research on the Impact of Increased Openness and How to Benefit from It Elliot E. Maxwell Fellow, Communications Program, Johns Hopkins University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Recent Research on the Impact of Increased Openness and How to Benefit from It Elliot E. Maxwell Fellow, Communications Program, Johns Hopkins University and Fellow, e-Business Research Center, Pennsylvania State University Digital Connections Council, Committee for Economic Development November 9, 2011

2 Four Recent Papers Examine the Impact of Increased Openness Of Mice and Academics: Examining the Effects of Openness on Innovation Climbing Atop the Shoulders of Giants: The Impact of Institutions on Cumulative Research Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation: Evidence from the Human Genome Scientific Problem Solving through Broadcast Search: InnoCentive.com

3 Of Mice and Academics By Fiona Murray, Phillippe Aghion, Mathias Dewatripont, Julian Kolev and Scott Stern Compares citations in follow-on research to research on open vs IP-protected mice "may increase the overall flow of research output closely associated with the…exploration of entirely new research lines." IP reduces thediversity of experimentation that follows from a single idea, key as progress in science is not linear Citations more likely to be found in applied research journals

4 Climbing atop the Shoulders of Giants By Jeffrey L. Furman and Scott Stern Compares citations in follow-on research to research using materials from Biological Resource Centers vs closed archives Articles based on BRC materials got 220 percent more citations Citation rates increased by percent for materials transferred to open archives 3 to 10 times more cost effective to increase funding of BRCs than funding new research Internet*

5 Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation By Heidi Williams Compares publications and commercial developments resulting from Celeras IP protected sequencing vs Human Genome Projects findings IP reduces the diversity of scientific experimentation. Reductions on the order of 30% in subsequent gene-level scientific research and product development (gene based diagnostic tests) Celera's short-term IP appears to have had persistent negative effects on subsequent research and product development compared with HGP data that was always in the public domain

6 Scientific Problem Solving Through Broadcast Search By Karim Lakhani InnoCentive broadcast problems to 80K self-selected solvers and paid them for best solutions Many winning solvers came from outside the problems field.Local search limited solution set; alternative approaches ignoredor not perceived

7 The Impact of Increased Openness Leads to increased citations in follow-on research Promotes diversity in follow-on research and pursuit of new research pathways Encourages intensity of research and movement toward applied research Speeds commercialization of research results Demonstrates value of unforeseen contributors Together these papers show that increased openness has clear and demonstrable benefits

8 Some Thoughts on Adding Value Intellectual property protection and openness/sharing offer mirror images IP theory: incentives for innovation come from ability to monetize which requires control over the creation Sharing based on the ability of anyone to add value. The broadest possible distribution increases the likelihood of gains:With enough eyes all bugs are shallow. Sharing is not incompatible with someone in control e.g. Linux

9 How To Compete If Access is Free: Some Lessons From IT Get your technology in the open standard because you know the technology better than anyone else Make your money by innovating on top of the new standard What is freely accessible is always changing; help customers keep up and maximize their benefit Provide new and improved tools to increase the value that they can gain from what is accessible Focus on what it is that your customers do best; do for them what you can do better.

10 COMING SOON AT AN INTERNET NEAR YOU! An analysis of the impact of the NIH public access policy The arguments for and against the policy and its extension to other federal funding agencies

11 Contact Information Elliot E. Maxwell


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