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Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. DE – Definitions and Theory.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. DE – Definitions and Theory."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. DE – Definitions and Theory

2 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. ST SP ST SP DT SP DT SP ST DP ST DP DT DP DT DP Coldeway's Quadrants

3 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

4 Industrialization & Distance Education Rationalization - teacher's knowledge and skills are delivered to unlimited numbers of students at a distance and with uniform quality. Division of Labor - a fundamental prerequisite for D.E. to be effective (Course developers are not course evaluators). Mechanization - conventional education operates at a pre-industrial level. D.E. applies technologies. Assembly Line - D.E. staff remain at their posts but materials are passed on. Mass Production - Many learners at many locations learning concurrently. Rationalization - teacher's knowledge and skills are delivered to unlimited numbers of students at a distance and with uniform quality. Division of Labor - a fundamental prerequisite for D.E. to be effective (Course developers are not course evaluators). Mechanization - conventional education operates at a pre-industrial level. D.E. applies technologies. Assembly Line - D.E. staff remain at their posts but materials are passed on. Mass Production - Many learners at many locations learning concurrently.

5 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Industrialization & Distance Education Mass Production - Many learners at many locations learning concurrently. Planning and Preparation - D.E. is characterized by extensive planning by senior staff. Standardization - D.E. teaching is constant for all learners. Functional Changes and Objectification - The functional role of the teacher is split into: 1. provider of knowledge (unit author) 2. evaluator (tutor) 3. counselor (advisor) Monopolization - Concentration and centralization within state or nation are common. Mass Production - Many learners at many locations learning concurrently. Planning and Preparation - D.E. is characterized by extensive planning by senior staff. Standardization - D.E. teaching is constant for all learners. Functional Changes and Objectification - The functional role of the teacher is split into: 1. provider of knowledge (unit author) 2. evaluator (tutor) 3. counselor (advisor) Monopolization - Concentration and centralization within state or nation are common.

6 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Redefinition of Distance Education Institution-based formal education where the learning group is separated geographically, and where interactive telecommunications systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors.

7 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Theory - Defined A system for explaining a set of phenomena by specifying rules that relate the phenomena to each other.

8 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. "Finally, the most fundamental and most important characteristic of a profession is that the skills involved are founded upon a body of intellectual theory and research. Furthermore, this systematic theory is constantly being expanded by research."

9 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Theories of Distance Education Independence and autonomy Industrialization Interaction Independence and autonomy Industrialization Interaction

10 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Equivalency Theory of Distance Education "The more equivalent the learning situation of the distant learner is to the learning situation of the traditional learner, the more equivalent are the learning outcomes."

11 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Purpose of Research about Distance Education One purpose of research in distance education is to determine effective practices.

12 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Research – an Example A comparison of local learners to distant learners in three courses CourseMeanLocalDistant # # # CourseMeanLocalDistant # # #

13 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. MeanLocalDistant Support Adequacy of Instruction Strengths of Instruction Technology MeanLocalDistant Support Adequacy of Instruction Strengths of Instruction Technology

14 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. The best current evidence is that... media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in nutrition.

15 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Distance Education Research Characteristics anecdotal comparison studies lack of generalizability adult learners practitioner oriented anecdotal comparison studies lack of generalizability adult learners practitioner oriented

16 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Research Conclusions Students value distance education but prefer traditional education. Distant learners learn as well as traditional learners. Teaching effectiveness improves if it: –is carefully planned –uses structured note-taking –uses visuals –is taught by trained teachers Students value distance education but prefer traditional education. Distant learners learn as well as traditional learners. Teaching effectiveness improves if it: –is carefully planned –uses structured note-taking –uses visuals –is taught by trained teachers

17 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. What Works – Distance Education Carefully planned instruction Structured note-taking - interactive study guides Visualizations of concepts Less than 4 remote sites Almost anything that works in a regular classroom - if it is planned Carefully planned instruction Structured note-taking - interactive study guides Visualizations of concepts Less than 4 remote sites Almost anything that works in a regular classroom - if it is planned

18 Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. What Doesn't Work – Distance Education Poorly planned instruction Unstructured note-taking Talking head lectures More than 4 remote sites Almost everything, if it isn't planned carefully Poorly planned instruction Unstructured note-taking Talking head lectures More than 4 remote sites Almost everything, if it isn't planned carefully


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