Presentation on theme: "The ISCED Standard for Coding of Education and DDI-Lifecycle"— Presentation transcript:
1 The ISCED Standard for Coding of Education and DDI-Lifecycle Hilde OrtenNSD - Norwegian Social Science Data ServicesJoachim WackerowGESIS - Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences3rd Annual European DDI Users Group Meeting, Gothenburg, Dec 5/6 2011
2 Outline Challenges in measuring education cross-nationally The International Standard for Classification of Education (ISCED), why and what?Possible DDI usage – resource packages for ISCED.This autumn two events of importance for cross-national data collection on education took place.In November, a new version of the International for Classification, ISCED 2011 was approved by the UNESCO’s 36th General conference.In October, the European Social Survey (ESS) released their data and metadata from round 5, which include a major upgrade of the measurement of educational attainment based on ISCED.Both the new ISCED version, as well as questions, variables and codings (bridgings) from the new education variables in the ESS represents material that typically can be reused.This presentation is the result of some first steps of thinking of ISCED in terms of metadata structured for reuse in the DDI.ISCED is a complex standard when it comes to metadata. First the standard will be explained and the relationship between metadata components based on ISCED explored.Focus will then move to possible DDI usage as a resource package for ISCED.
3 Challenges in Measuring Education Cross-nationally Education is a widely used variable in social research as a core explanatory factor or as a control variableEducation is a social institution that differ strongly between countriesQualifications differs over timeChallenge: Cross-nationally comparable measurement of educational attainment, enrollment and other education related informationEducation affects many aspects of an individual’s lifechances, behaviours, attitudes and values(Walter Müller 2008)
4 ISCED – What is it, Developments The International Standard for Classification of Education (ISCED) is the most advanced attempt at creating a systematic international framework for classification of educational programs and qualifications.UNESCO is responsibleFirst version: 1976, was developed for own use, as well as for the use of other statistical agencies, e.g. the OECD. Classifies education levels.Second version: 1997 – allows for measuring education and training in more detail within levels.Third version: 2011 – released the 10th of November this year. More differentiation at tertiary level. Simplification of allocation criteria. 3-digit numeric coding frames for coding of educational enrollment and educational attainment.
5 Classification of ISCED 2011 - Purpose System on an abstract levelCaptures the variance of national programmesGoal:Comparability between countriesHeterogenity of programme systems and measurement systems between countriesComparability within countries over timeHeterogenity of programme systems and measurement systems over timeISCED is a classification system on an abstract level designed to allow for comparable measurement of education related information.Originally designed for use in large-scale statistical reporting, ISCED has increased in importance when it comes to cross-national collection of survey data.Several larger official and non-official surveys like the EU-Labour Force Survey, EU-SILC, the European Social Survey as well as the European Values Study have implemented more or less detailed versions of ISCED (1997).The unit of classification is educational programmes and their related qualifications.As educational systems and their measurement may vary to a large extent both between countries, as well as over time, the purpose of ISCED is to capture the variance of the national educational programmes.
6 Classification of ISCED 2011 VariantsEducational programmesEducational attainmentNumeric coding frameworkStrictly hierarchicalsub-levels add to the next upper level3 levels (digits)Level of educationCategoriesSub-categoriesISCED 2011 classifies Levels and Fields of education. In this presentation focus will be put on the classification of ISCED Levels which is in the heart of statistical reporting on education and an important variable in survey research.ISCED 2011 Levels has two classification varianrts:The coding of educational programmes (Annex 2 in the ISCED 2011 standard), andThe coding of educational attainmnet ((Annex 3 in the ISCED 2011 standard).
7 Classification of ISCED 2011 - Extract 0 Less than primary…1 Primary2 Lower secondary24 general242 partial level completion and without direct access to upper secondary243 level completion, without direct access to upper secondary244 level completion, with direct access to upper secondary25 vocational252 partial level completion and without direct access to upper secondary253 level completion, without direct access to upper secondary254 level completion, with direct access to upper secondary3 Upper secondary4 Post-secondary non-tertiary5 Short-cycle tertiary6 Bachelor or equivalent7 Master or equivalent8 Doctoral or equivalent9 Not elsewhere classifiedThis slide shows an extract of the ISCED 2011 coding of educational attainment (ISCED11A).The first level (digit) defines the 9 ISCED levelsMain and subsidiary classification criteria distinguish national educational programmes between levels.The second and the third level distinguish educational programmes within levels according to a set of cross-classification variables.The second level represents the categories where programmes are distinguished according to programme orientetion (general and vocational) at ISCED 2011 levels 2 – 8.The third level represents the sub-categories where programmes are further distinguished according to level completion and/or access to higher level programmes (ISCED 2011 level 2 – 5)and programme duration in and position in the national degree structure (ISCED 2011 level 6 and 7).
8 ISCED 2011 - Complete Standard Three components:ClassificationOperational concepts and definitions as structured textMappings of national programs to classificationRequired for usage in official statistics and surveys, especially to achieve comparabilityNot available yet, planned for the next few yearsThe ISCED 2011 does not consist in the classification alone.Basically, the ISCED 2011 standard rest on three components (ISCED standard p. 3):The classificationConcepts and definitionsThe mappings of educational programmes into ISCED, which will document the crosswalks between national educational programmes and 2011 codes. Mappings for ISCED 2011 are not yet available.
9 ISCED 2011 Definitions – Example Level 5 – short-cycle tertiary B. CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA211. For the definition of short-cycle tertiary, the following criteria are relevant:Main criteriaa. Content of short-cycle tertiary programmes (see Paragraph 212);b. Entry requirements (see Paragraph 208); andc. Minimum duration of programme (see Paragraph 213).…D. COMPLEMENTARY DIMENSIONS216. Two dimensions differentiate educational programmes at ISCED level 5:Programme orientation (see Paragraph 217); andLevel completion (see Paragraph 218).Operational concepts and definitions make up an important part of the ISCED 2011 standard.This example shows the classification criteria used to distinguish educational programmes between ISCED levels for ISCED 2011 level 5.The complementary dimensions shown refers to cross-classification variables used to distinguish programmes within ISCED levels at level 5.
10 Mapping Example of ISCED 1997 ISCED alpha-numeric codeGermanyUSA55B5B15B1sh or 5B1me29 Fachakademien (Bayern)30 Schulen des Gesundheitswesens, 2+3 jährig5B1sh31 Fachschulen, 2 jährigVocational Associate's DegreeProgramme5B1me32 Fachschulen, 3+4 jährig36 Berufsakademien37 Verwaltungsfachhochschulen5A5A15AishAcademic Associate's Degree Programme5A1meBachelor's Degree Programme5A1me or 5A1lo38 Fachhochschulen5A1lo or 5A1vl39 Universitäten…...The ISCED mappings of national educational programmes into ISCED are a part of the ISCED 2011 standard. However, mappings for the ISCED 2011 standard are not yet constructed.The existing ISCED97 based mappings document the coding of national educational programmes into ISCED97. Since educational systems and programmes undergo changes, the mappings are updated regularly in the UOE data collection. They also contain information about the national programmes in relation to a set of cross-classification variables that are used to distinguish between programmes between and within levels of education.Even if the information in the ISCED97 mappings more represent qualitative descriptions, it makes sense to represent the mapping of educational programmes into ISCED by a 4-digit alphanumeric code, as displayed in the example above.The three first digits are represented by single characters, while the fourth digit is represented by two characters.Sometimes the ISCED97 mappings of national programmes into ISCED are not detailed enough to distinguish programmes at a four digit level.For ISCED97, level 5 refers to first stage of tertiary education (e.g. University education including Master’s degrees). This is a much broader category than category 5 in ISCED 2011.The A and Bs stands for type of education: B = vocational and A = general at ISCED97 level 5. Value i, 1 or 2 at the third digit stands for intermadiate, 1st and 2nd degree in the national degree structure, and the cumulative duration of the programme since the beginning of level 5, short, medium etc.The ISCED coding used in the national UOE mappings follow the specification of the UOE data collection manuals, maintained by the OECD. The meaning of the codes deviates sometimes intendedly from the ISCED97 standard.To build alternative variables based on ISCED, more cross-classification variables found in the mappings can be taken into account in the generation.
11 ISCED 1997 The ISCED 1997 standard consists in: - Classification - Operational concepts and definitions- ManualsNo codes available- Alpha-numeric codes can be constructedaccording to the textNo separate coding for attainmentLess detailed below primary and above secondary level compared to ISCED 2011More complicated classification criteria (clarification and simplification in ISCED 2011)For ISCED97 operational manuals are produced by UNESCO and the OECD. Manuals used in the UOE data collections are maintained by the OECD, and contains mappings of national educational programmes into ISCED since 1999.In ISCED 2011 mappings are part of the ISCED standard, but not the manuals.In ISCED97 a numeric coding framework is not available, but an alphanumeric coding frame can be produced on the basis of the standard.As the structure and content of the ISCED97 standard is complicated, an issue is related to structuring of the concept and definition of the standard.
12 European Social Survey Round 5 EDULVLB – MotivationMore detailed and better coding framework for educational attainmentAllows for the construction of purpose built measures, e.g. EISCED and EDULVLAImprovement of tertiary level, useful for European countriesImprovement of some simplifications in ISCEDBased on developments of ISCED 2011 till May 2010EDULVLA5-category system, based on ISCED 1997Can be used as simple link between EDULVLB and ISCED 1997, useful for comparison with former roundsEISCED7-category system, of better analytical value than EDULVLA, useful for European countriesDr. Silke Schneider acted as an expert consultant for the ESS in the construction and implementation of the new variables EDULVLB and EISCED (ES-ISCED European Survey version of ISCED).12
13 Relationship between ISCED based components Based on ISCED 2011European Social Survey Round 5QDKDKEDULVLAQDEDEEDULVLBEISCEDQFIFIMapping ofNationalProgramsThis slide shows the relationship between a set of ISCED based components applying to the latest revision of ISCED, ISCED 2011, ISCED 1997 and the ESS.Boxes:Boxes represent some important ISCED based components.Dark blue boxes represent cross-national variables, or classifications realised as variables in DDI.Grey boxes represent national variables, or content from official national ISCED mappings realised as variables.Green boxes represent questions.Arrows:Green and thick arrows represent relationships considered to be straightforward and easy to establish.Blue and thin arrows represent relationships that are possible, but where additions are needed.Circles:Big unfilled ellipse covers ISCED 2011 components.Small unfilled ellipse covers ISCED 1997 components.Light blue ellipse covers ESS components and their relationship.Questions, national variables and cross-national variables EDULVLB and EISCED are based on the developments of ISCED 2011 till May 2010 and new for round 5.EDULVLA was used in earlier rounds and is based on ISCED97. EDULVLA represents a link between ESS data from round 5 and data from earlier rounds of the ESS.?ISCED97ISCED11AISCED11PMappingDKMappingDEMappingFIBased on ISCED 1997
14 Possible DDI Usage: Resource Package for ISCED 2011 Programme and Attainment as two variables (with codes and categories)Relationship between programme and attainment variant, realised in comparisonOperational concepts and definitions as collection of notes (or as external other material with identifiable sections)Issue: identification of each paragraph, cross-reference between paragraphs, integration of structured textFuture mappings from national variables to ISCED11, realised in comparison and generation instructionIssue: current solution of extracting/adding parts of/to existing code list is probably not flexible enough
15 ISCED in a DDI Resource Package Study-independent Metadata stored in a DDI Resource package can be reused by different studies, waves, or agenciesStudy1Round 1Round nDDI Resource PackageEducation/ISCEDquestion bankStudy2Round 1Round nAgency 1Collection ACollection NAgency 2Collection ACollection N
17 DDI Category Map - Example ISCED11P vs. ISCED11A category descriptions CodeISCED11PISCED11ASimilarity3Upper secondaryIdentical34general / academic341Upper secondary general/academic. Recognized successful completion of programme is insufficient for completion or partial completion of ISCED level (and thus without direct access to programmes at a higherISCED level)Not usedNone342Upper secondary general / academic. Recognized successful completion of programme is sufficient for partial completion of ISCED level but without direct access to programmes at a higher ISCED levelUpper secondary general / academic. Partial level completion – without direct access to programmes at a higher ISCED levelHighDescription: The categories of ISCED11P and ISCED11A at ISCED level 3 have higly similar meanings. Codes with 1 in the third digit in ISCED11P represent programmes insufficient for level completion or partial level completion, and should be classified at ISCED level 2 in ISCED11AExample of possible output from DDI Life-cycle category map.The information in this table displays codes of the ISCED 2011 ISCED11P (Programmes) and ISCED11A (ATTAINMENT) coding frameworks , as well as the correspondance between the category descriptions of ISCED11P and ISCED11A.The descriptions rather than the categories have been chosen for the comparison, as the meaning carrier of the category.The descriptions are compiled from Table 1 – 3 at p. 17 and 18 in the ISCED 2011 manual.A category map in the DDI provides possibilities for identifying and mapping source and target schemes, a description of the correspondence between source and target, a CommonalityTypeCoded that allows for a controlled vocabulary or UserDefinedCorrespondenceProperty, as well as a commonality weight (0 -1).
18 Possible DDI Usage II Resource Package for ESS education variables EDULVLB, EDULVLA, EISCED as variablesNational variables and questionsMappings from national variables to EDULVLB, realised in comparison and generation instructionRelationship of EDULVLB, EDULVLA, EISCED, realised in comparison and generation instructionExplanations and definitions for EDULVLB, realised as notesResource Package for ISCED 1997Variable ISCED97 with alpha-numeric codesNational variables based on the ISCED mappingsMappings from national variables to ISCED97, realised in comparison and generation instruction
19 DDI Code Map based on ESS variables - Example EDULVLB (source)/EDULVLA (target)EDULVLBEDULVLACategory1Less than lower secondary education (ISCED 0-1)2Lower secondary education completed (ISCED 2)3Upper secondary education completed (ISCED 3)4Post-secondary non-tertiary education completed (ISCED 4)5Tertiary education completed (ISCED 5-6)555555Other777777Refusal888888Don’t know999999No answerDescription: EDULVLA is a 5-category variable based on ISCED97 levels where code 0-1 and 5-6 are collapsed. EDULVLB is a 26 category harmonised variable based on the developments of ISCED11 as of May 2010.Generation instruction EDULVLB (source) to EDULVLA (target):* SAS command;if 0 <= EDULVLB <=129 then EDULVLA = 1;else if 212 <= EDULVLB <= 229 then EDULVLA = 2;else if 311 <= EDULVLB <= 323 then EDULVLA = 3;else if 412 <= EDULVLB <= 423 then EDULVLA = 4;else if 510 <= EDULVLB = 800 then EDULVLA = 5;else if EDULVLB = 5555 then EDULVLA = 55;else if EDULVLB = 7777 then EDULVLA = 77;else if EDULVLB = 8888 then EDULVLA = 88;else if EDULVLB = 9999 then EDULVLA = 99;run;CodeMap in DDI allows the use of GenerationInstruction to define the item level of correspondence between s source and a target item.GenerationInstruction in DDI LifeCycle allows for entering a machine-actionable syntax. The example shows a syntax in the SAS software.EDULVLB represents the new detailed ISCED based variable in the ESS, while EDULVLA is the variable used in earlier ESS rounds. EDULVLB can usefully be coded to EDULVLA to provide comparability over time.
20 Possible DDI resource packages based on ISCED and potential use RP: ISCED 2011RP: ISCED 1997<ddi>RP: ESS<ddi><ddi><ddi><ddi>OfficialNon-officialNationalInter-nationalSURVEYSSTATISTICALREPORTING
21 Next Steps Resource Package for ISCED 2011 Realised in two steps: Motivation: latest version, most structured versionChallenge: ISCED 2011 is a complete package not just a classificationRealised in two steps:1) The classification variants ISCEDA and ISCEDPTerminology and definitions2) Mapping of educational programmes into ISCED.The next steps consist in developing a DDI resource package for ISCED 2011.Start with a multilingual realisation of the classification variants ISCEDA and ISCEDP , and include operational concepts and definitions.When available, include details from the mappings as variables. Display coding of ISCED11P and A, as well as other purpose built measures in comparison tables and generation instruction.Outlook: Ohter ideas of ISCED-based resource packages.