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Renewable WSF as a Pathway to Equal Access to Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China Yiran Zhao International Education Policy Harvard Graduate.

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Presentation on theme: "Renewable WSF as a Pathway to Equal Access to Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China Yiran Zhao International Education Policy Harvard Graduate."— Presentation transcript:

1 Renewable WSF as a Pathway to Equal Access to Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China Yiran Zhao International Education Policy Harvard Graduate School of Education

2 Migrant Children & Compulsory Education Migrant children are children of migrant workers. Migrant workers are registered as permanent residents in rural areas. They are surplus rural labor who migrated into the cities and work as industrial/service workers. 6-year primary school 3-year lower secondary school Compulsory Education 2006 Compulsory Education Law 2006 Compulsory Education Law Students dont pay tuition and miscellaneous fee Localities that receive migrant children should provide them with equal access to compulsory education

3 Problem: Unequal Access Barriers attending public school Cannot afford regular private school Low-quality Migrant Children School CityPercentage in Public School Percentage in Private Migrant Children School Percentage of Migrant Children Schools that are NOT Approved by Government Population out of school Beijing62%26.9%76.5%5500 Shanghai//97.5%/ Guangzhou28%68.7% Source: Adapted from Tian,H.S.& Wu,N.( 2010). A research on migrant children s education: Based on investigations of the situations, problems and countermeasure analysis of 12 cities. Note: / means data was still being processed when the book was published. Poor facility unsafe/unhygienic Low quality teacher training/certificate High teacher turn- over rate Principals without sufficient leadership skills Limited curriculum offerings

4 Financial Cause: Outdated Funding System Public School Funding Local responsibility Allowed by law to demand additional fee administration by levels More developed, less transfer payment 2008,Guangzh ou: 269 million RMB(43,218, USD) for 190,000 migrant children Regular Private School Funding Cater to upper income population with expensive charge Government reluctant to pay for educational cost demanded by law Low-cost Migrant Children School Funding Only a limited number are subsidized Tuition of hundreds of RMB per year per student Not approved by government, no subsidy For-profit schools

5 Necessary Ingredients to Reform the System Money follows Child Extra financial support for low-cost migrant children schools Source: Xinhua.net;Wangyi Website

6 Vouchers Targeted Voucher: Columbia Universal Voucher: Chile Charters U.S as an example Weighted Student Funding Netherlands WSF

7 money follows the child, sufficient to cover all tuition and miscellaneous fee establishes the mechanism for private schools to receive extra funding by public finance improves enrollment-access to good quality school improves school quality other potential problems or advantages.

8 Renewable WSF to Alleviate the Problem Only use WSF for migrant children Average educational cost of a city= 1.0 weight Weight=Outcome differential cost for a group of migrant children+ profit weight for school Renew: weight increase upon achieving outcome goal Cap the weight with reputational plus monetary award Supervision system for migrant children schools Identify recipient: resident registration record+ parents work certificate

9 More than WSF Amount of WSF Can be too small to turn migrant children schools around Legally forbid charging migrant children extra More than input Partnering good schools with low quality ones Guide private school to use additional funding effectively Guide schools to invest weighted money on help teacher adapt to migrant childrens needs Addressing cultural factors Urban citizens bias, discrimination and self-defense Legally forbid student selection by school Regular private schools May not be attracted because they want to preserve elite image

10 Bibliography Angrist,J., Bettinger,E., Bloom, E., King,E., &Kremer,M.(2002). Vouchers for private schooling in Colombia: Evidence from a randomized natural experiment. American Economic Review, 92(5): Barrera-Osorio, F. & Patrinos,.H.A.(2009). An international perspective on school vouchers. In M. Berends, M.G. Springer, D. Ballou, H.J.Walberg, & A. Primus(Eds). Handbook of research on school choice(pp ). New York: Routledge. Bellei,C.(2005). The private public school controversy: The case of Chile. Conference on Mobilizing the Private Sector for Public Education. Preliminary draft, Harvard University. Retrieved from: 13%20Private%20Public%20in%20Chile.pdf 13%20Private%20Public%20in%20Chile.pdf Brewer, D.& Hentschke, G.C.(2009). An international perspective on publicly-financed, privately-operated schools. In M. Berends, M.G. Springer, D. Ballou, H.J.Walberg, & A. Primus(Eds). Handbook of research on school choice(pp ). New York: Routledge.

11 Bibliography Continued Department of Education.(2004). Evaluation of the public charter schools program: Final report. Retrieved from: Migrant population distribution is concentrated, 10 provinces including Guangdong and Jiangsu host more than 60% of the migrant population. (2008, October 23). China.com.cn. Retrieved from Chinese Government.(2005). The Regulations on the Implementation of the Non-state Education Promotion Law of the People's Republic of China. Retrieved from Chinese Government.(2006). Compulsory Education Law. Retrieved from Charter School Development Center.(2012).California charter school finance in a nutshell. Retrieved from ol_finance_in_a_nutshell.pdf Gallegos, F.(2004). School choice, incentives, and academic outcomes: Evidence from Chile. Boston: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from: Gross, B. (2011). Inside charter schools: Unlocking doors to student success. Retrieved from

12 Bibliography Continued Fan, X.Z. & Peng,P.(2008). Educational equity and institutional safeguards: An analysis of compulsory education for Chinese rural migrant workers children. Research in Educational Development,(12A), 5–9. Green, P.(2009). Charter school law. In M. Berends, M.G. Springer, D. Ballou, H.J.Walberg, & A. Primus(Eds). Handbook of research on school choice(pp ). New York: Routledge. Han,J.L.(2004). Survey report on the state of compulsory education among migrant children in Beijing. Chinese Education and Society,37(5), Hanushek,E.A. & Woessmann, L.(2011). GDP projection. Retrieved from 2-ED-EFA-MRT-PI-01.pdf Heckman,J.J.(2005).Chinas human capital investment.China Economic Review,(16), Hill,P., Angel,L.& Christensen,J.(2006). Charter school achievement studies. Education Finance and Policy, 1(1): Hoxby, C.& Rockoff,J.(2005). Findings from the city of big shoulders. Education Next,4:52-58 Hoxby,C.,&Murarka,S.(2007). New York Citys charter schools overall report. Cambridge,MA: New York City Charter Schools Evaluation Project, June 2007.

13 Bibliography Continued Hu,Y. & Szente,J.(2010). Education of young Chinese migrant children: Challenges and prospects. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(6), DOI /s Hua,L.Y.(2007). The research on the education problems of the transient population children under the present compulsory education system. (Unpublished Master Thesis). Central China Normal University: Wuhan. Huang,Z.H.&Xu,K.P.(2006). Education of migrant workers and their children and its solutions.Journal of Zhenjiang University: Humanities and Social Sciences,36(4), Hsieh,C.T. and M. Urquiola.(2006). The effects of generalized school choice on achievement and stratification:Evidence from Chiles voucher program. Journal of Public Economics, 90(8-9): Over 2 hundred million migrant workers in town: How to solve the education problems of their children.(2010 March 26).Ifeng.com. Retrieved from tml Karsten, S. (2006). Policies for disadvantaged children under scrutiny: The Dutch policy compared with policies in France, England, Flanders and the USA, Comparative Education, 42(2): 261–282. King E.M., Orazem, P.F., & Wohlgemuth, D.(1998). Central mandates and local incentives: The Colombia education voucher program. THE WORLD BANK ECONOMIC REVIEW., 13( 3):

14 Bibliography Continued Ladd, F.H. (2008). Reflections on equity, adequacy and weighted student funding.(Working Paper Series SAN08-04). Retrieved from Duke University, Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy website: Ladd,F.H., & Fiske, E.B.(2009). The Dutch experience with student weighted funding: Some lessons for the U.S. (Working Paper Series SAN09-03), Retrieved from Duke University, Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy website: Lei, X.R.(2008). Vouchers The good news for compulsory education for migrant workers. China Agricultural Education, 5 :4-5 Li, H.S.(2007). On the policy analysis of education vouchers(Unpublished doctoral dissertation). East China Normal University. Shanghai. Liao, M. Y. & Liu, S. Q.(2011). Research on compulsory education of floating children.Journal of Heilongjiang College of Education,30(2), Loveless, T.,& Field, K. (2009).Perspectives on charter schools. In M. Berends, M.G. Springer, D. Ballou, H.J.Walberg, & A. Primus(Eds). Handbook of research on school choice(pp ). New York: Routledge. Ma, H.(2010). Who is going to be responsible for the compulsory education of migrant children. Legislation and Society,(2):5-9 National Bureau of Statistics.(2012) Chinese migrant workers investigation and monitoring report. Retrieved from National Education Association.(2012). Charter Schools. Retrieved from: OECD.(2009). What works in migrant education? A review of evidence and policy options. Retrieved from ilibrary.org/content/workingpaper/ Patrinos, H.A.(2006). Public-private partnerships: Contracting education in Latin America. Preliminary draft, World Bank. Tao H& Yang, D.P. (2007). The educational problems and solutions that migrant children in Beijing faces. Jiangxi Education Research,(1): Tian,H.S.& Wu,N.( 2010). A research on migrant children s education: Based on investigations of the situations, problems and countermeasure analysis of 12 cities. Beijing: Educational Science Publishing House. Tsang,M.C.(2001). Intergovernmental grants and the financing of compulsory education in China. Retrieved from Tang,X.B.(2011). A study on the migrant childrens compulsory education problems in China.(Unpublished master thesis). Hangzhou: Zhengjiang University of Finance and Economics. UNESCO.(2009).Overcoming inequality: Why governance matters. Retrieved from Wang, J.X.& Fang,H.B.(2008). The fiscal incentive systems and institutions for compulsory education in China. Journal of Huazhong Normal University: Humanities and Social Sciences,47(4):10-15 Wang, L.(2008). The marginality of migrant children in the urban Chinese educational system. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 29,(6): Wei,B.J.&Hou,J.W. (2010). The Household Registration System, Education System, and Inequalities in Education for Migrant Children. Education Research, (7), West,E.G.(1997). Education Vouchers in principle and practice: A survey. The World Bank Research Observer, 12(1): Wells, A.S.(2009).The Social context of charter schools. In M. Berends, M.G. Springer, D. Ballou, H.J.Walberg, & A. Primus(Eds). Handbook of research on school choice(pp ). New York: Routledge. Wong, K.K.& Klopott, S.(2009).Politics and governance in charter schools. In M. Berends, M.G. Springer, D. Ballou, H.J.Walberg, & A. Primus(Eds). Handbook of research on school choice(pp ). New York: Routledge. World Bank.(2012). [Graph illustration the proportion enrolled by age and level of education for Colombia, 1990 DHS]. Education Attainment Project. Retrieved from: World Bank.(2012).[ Graph illustration the proportion enrolled by age and level of education for Colombia, 2010 DHS]. Education Attainment Project. Retrieved from: Wu, R.J.(2009). Main problems and solving thoughts of rural migrant workers' children education. Research in Educational Development,(1) 1-6. Xia.C.L.(2006). Migrant children and the right to compulsory education in China. Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law, 2, Xiang,J.Q.(2005). Education of peasant-worker's children: Policy choice and systematical guarantee. Journal of Huazhong Normal University: Humanities and Social Sciences, 44(3),2-10. Xin, X.B.(2006). Pathways to solve the compulsory education problem for the floating population in China. Human Capital Development in China,2006,(5)


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