Presentation on theme: "Renewable WSF as a Pathway to Equal Access to Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China Yiran Zhao International Education Policy Harvard Graduate."— Presentation transcript:
Renewable WSF as a Pathway to Equal Access to Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China Yiran Zhao International Education Policy Harvard Graduate School of Education
Migrant Children & Compulsory Education Migrant children are children of migrant workers. Migrant workers are registered as permanent residents in rural areas. They are surplus rural labor who migrated into the cities and work as industrial/service workers. 6-year primary school 3-year lower secondary school Compulsory Education 2006 Compulsory Education Law 2006 Compulsory Education Law Students dont pay tuition and miscellaneous fee Localities that receive migrant children should provide them with equal access to compulsory education
Problem: Unequal Access Barriers attending public school Cannot afford regular private school Low-quality Migrant Children School CityPercentage in Public School Percentage in Private Migrant Children School Percentage of Migrant Children Schools that are NOT Approved by Government Population out of school Beijing62%26.9%76.5%5500 Shanghai//97.5%/ Guangzhou28%68.7% Source: Adapted from Tian,H.S.& Wu,N.( 2010). A research on migrant children s education: Based on investigations of the situations, problems and countermeasure analysis of 12 cities. Note: / means data was still being processed when the book was published. Poor facility unsafe/unhygienic Low quality teacher training/certificate High teacher turn- over rate Principals without sufficient leadership skills Limited curriculum offerings
Financial Cause: Outdated Funding System Public School Funding Local responsibility Allowed by law to demand additional fee administration by levels More developed, less transfer payment 2008,Guangzh ou: 269 million RMB(43,218, USD) for 190,000 migrant children Regular Private School Funding Cater to upper income population with expensive charge Government reluctant to pay for educational cost demanded by law Low-cost Migrant Children School Funding Only a limited number are subsidized Tuition of hundreds of RMB per year per student Not approved by government, no subsidy For-profit schools
Necessary Ingredients to Reform the System Money follows Child Extra financial support for low-cost migrant children schools Source: Xinhua.net;Wangyi Website
Vouchers Targeted Voucher: Columbia Universal Voucher: Chile Charters U.S as an example Weighted Student Funding Netherlands WSF
money follows the child, sufficient to cover all tuition and miscellaneous fee establishes the mechanism for private schools to receive extra funding by public finance improves enrollment-access to good quality school improves school quality other potential problems or advantages.
Renewable WSF to Alleviate the Problem Only use WSF for migrant children Average educational cost of a city= 1.0 weight Weight=Outcome differential cost for a group of migrant children+ profit weight for school Renew: weight increase upon achieving outcome goal Cap the weight with reputational plus monetary award Supervision system for migrant children schools Identify recipient: resident registration record+ parents work certificate
More than WSF Amount of WSF Can be too small to turn migrant children schools around Legally forbid charging migrant children extra More than input Partnering good schools with low quality ones Guide private school to use additional funding effectively Guide schools to invest weighted money on help teacher adapt to migrant childrens needs Addressing cultural factors Urban citizens bias, discrimination and self-defense Legally forbid student selection by school Regular private schools May not be attracted because they want to preserve elite image
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