The Role of Education in Peacebuilding 1.Peacebuilding theory has not had a strong influence on education programming. 2.Education for peacebuilding goes beyond do no harm. 3.Most education programming is not planned from a peacebuilding perspective. 4.The sequencing of education programming is important.
The Role of Education in Peacebuilding 5. The transition from humanitarian to development funding is an important concern. 6. Peacebuilding requires more attention to education sector reform. 7. Education needs to engage with the UN peacebuilding architecture. 8. UNICEF needs to review the implications of a more explicit commitment to peacebuilding.
Big Picture: Linkages of education to other spheres
RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION TO POST- CONFLICT TRANSFORMATIONS SOCIAL Focus AreaTypes of Program Social capitalChild friendly spaces Social cohesionPsychosocial support Resolving inter-group conflictPeace Education Education about social/cultural rights Shifting social identitiesDealing with the past, truth and reconciliation Social networksEducation about coexistence and tolerance
RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION TO POST- CONFLICT TRANSFORMATIONS ECONOMIC Focus AreaTypes of Program Transforming the conflict economy; redirecting resources to development Programs to support development of relevant skills for economic regeneration Addressing unemploymentTechnical and vocational education and training programmes Developing new skills for economic regeneration Addressing economic inequalities
RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION TO POST- CONFLICT TRANSFORMATIONS POLITICAL/GOVERNANCE Focus areaTypes of Programs Constitutional ReformEducation programs about political rights Political InstitutionsEducation programs on child rights RepresentationCivic and citizenship education ElectionsParticipation programs
RELEVANCE OF EDUCATION TO POST- CONFLICT TRANSFORMATIONS SECURITY Focus AreaTypes of Programme ReintegrationBack to school, restoring normality Education for refugees, IDPs Disarmament Demobilization Reintegration Accelerated Learning for former combatants and children who have missed out on learning Community safetySchools as safe places, mine risk education, schools as zones of peace Fundamental Freedoms – speech, movement Human rights education
Categories within Education Access Learning Governance/Institutional Capacity Draft diagnostic tools for assessing conflict sensitivity of Education Programs (USAID, INEE WGEF, UNICEF)
Learning: Conflict Sensitive Curriculum and teacher training programs and materials: Are free of bias, slander, prejudice, misrepresentation of minority or other groups involved in the conflict, recognize the history, accomplishments, customs, values, and traditions of all social groups Promote co-existence, dual narratives of history, gender equity, problem-solving and dispute resolution skills Provide teachers with skills in creation of classroom rules and positive discipline
Learning: Creating an Enabling Environment Specific skills promote student well-being (establishing classroom routines, questioning techniques to ensure ALL students participate and develop a sense of belonging) Group work promoting better peer relations Language of instruction Early Childhood Education ALP and Non Formal Education (adolescents) Leadership training with a gender approach Youth learning linked to entrepreneurship and skills training
Learning: Possible Issues Teachers use fair and transparent evaluation criteria of students Learner achievement is recognized and course completion documents are provided accordingly (critical in contexts of return and reintegration of IDPS and refugees) Is the curriculum relevant in a particular context/school environment? (psychosocial support)
Governance: Education Sector Teacher management: recruitment, deployment: discrimination, transparency, identity, profile, qualifications Financial management, expenditure tracking systems (e.g. for payment of teachers/instructors) Indicators and data collection systems established to effectively measure objectives of equitable access and quality education systems Accountability and transparency of data for EMIS and HRMIS
Governance: Education Sector Support to policy dialogue and formulation for youth Accreditation systems (NF/NGO delivered training) Restructuring of management: fair representation of marginalized and traditionally underrepresented groups Government has financial plans (provision for likely decline in international support in a protracted crisis) Extend use of INEE MS by inter-agency coordination group
Stakeholders and Related Issues Areas to consider: gender, ethnicity, clan, tribe, disabilities, religion, geographic location, urban/rural, age group disaggregation) - EQUITY Children and youth Teachers - AGENTS OF CHANGE- (deployment, payment, accommodation and transportation) School community stakeholders (parents, grandparents, PTA and SMC members) Education personnel (school monitors, MoE staff at all levels) Education planners & policy makers Financial allocations to the education sector (centralized/decentralized, school grants) – sector reform Include peacebuilding community in consultations Emergency preparedness and DRR – vulnerability versus resilience (complex emergencies)
The Global View Ongoing work in education and peacebuilding: -New indicators and approaches to monitoring (measuring perceptions and attitudes) (PBSO, UNDP/BCPR, UNICEF, USAID, INEE) -SPAG -Nepal: Schools as Zones of Peace (share what works) -Education in Emergencies and Post Crisis Transition (evidence, lessons learned, documentation) -Global Monitoring Report -Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack