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1 REINTEGRATION OF EX-COMBATANTS EMPLOYMENT PROMOTION AND THE ILO’S APPROACH The “Stockholm Initiative on DDR” 10/11/2004 Presentation by Donato Kiniger-Passigli.

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Presentation on theme: "1 REINTEGRATION OF EX-COMBATANTS EMPLOYMENT PROMOTION AND THE ILO’S APPROACH The “Stockholm Initiative on DDR” 10/11/2004 Presentation by Donato Kiniger-Passigli."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 REINTEGRATION OF EX-COMBATANTS EMPLOYMENT PROMOTION AND THE ILO’S APPROACH The “Stockholm Initiative on DDR” 10/11/2004 Presentation by Donato Kiniger-Passigli ILO Crisis Response Programme

2 2 To improve security and allow for reconciliation To ensure peace and stability creating an environment conducive to rehabilitation and reconstruction To avoid conflict resumption To harness the contribution of all human resources for the conflict-affected country’s reconstruction and recovery process WHY REINTEGRATION OF EX-COMBATANTS?

3 3 Some Basic Issues to be Adressed: Employment is an immediate need in post- conflict scenarios Gainful employment lays at the foundations of human security and dignity An area-based approach for local economic development should be followed to encourage the reconcilation process Dangerous « waiting time » after demobilisation must be reduced and the identity of « ex-combatants » should be diluted through reintegration programmes Groups needing special assistance should be targeted

4 4 Sustaining Capacities Services to the ex- combatants should be so that other target groups can also benefit from them. Hence, no exclusion, no special remuneration, but reconciliation and collective assignments.

5 5 Profile Assessment/Employment Services - Counselling - Facilitation Role - Level of education - Expectations (cause of frustration) - Available skill/ Availability of work The assessments should preferably be done in the encampment sites during cantonment, prior to demobilization

6 6 Labour Intensive Works - Public Works Labour Intensive Works allow effective links with employment investment and local economic reactivation Facilitates post conflict reconciliation and reintegration Important role in reviving local economies and local markets/community participation with positive multiplying effect (local suppliers, small businesses)

7 7 Short-term Employment The presence of the international community with a large number of programmes can provide many short-term employment options for a number of ex-combatants (drivers, translators, construction workers, police etc.) The employers will include UN agencies, NGO’s or community organizations

8 8 The Private Sector and Micro Social Enterprise Development Potential Sectors : Agricultural micro projects Rural non-farming activities Trade businesses Craft businesses Transport businesses Construction companies

9 9 Training for Self-employment Training for most promising opportunities Improve the access of women to male- dominated crafts Apprenticeships Tool kits for start-up Micro credit/grant Self-organisation

10 10 Micro-finance Micro-finance includes all financial assistance given to starting or existing businesses. It can include: Grants (pre-investments for sustainable activities) Credit (when repayment is feasible) Micro-leasing

11 11 Employment/Business Support Services Long term assistance One to one business consulting according to needs and prospects Training on basic subjects Monitoring and evaluation of small and micro enterprises

12 12 Special Vulnerable Groups of Ex-combatants Children / Youth Ex-combatants with disabilities Female soldiers Soldiers of minority groups

13 13 ILO Focus: Training and job-opportunities for youngsters ( years) Income generating support to «receiving families» Advocacy through conventions

14 14 Focusing on demobilized soldiers alone can heighten tensions Ex-combatants are not a homogeneous group and should not be regarded as such. Reintegration is often not planned at the same time as the demobilization and disarmament programmes The national institutions in charge of DDR often lack capacity Lessons Gathered

15 15 Some of the programmes have not proven sustainable and have lacked follow-up monitoring Ex-combatants should find their place in the labour market after training Psychological aspects are not adequately taken into account Demobilized government soldiers and guerrillas should be treated equally The socio-economic reintegration of demobilized combatants is a long-term process, requiring time and periodic evaluation Lessons Gathered

16 16 Ex-combatants should be treated as serious job seekers, and stimulated to engage in productive economic activities, not merely as social cases In-kind assistance, rather than cash payments, is more effective for sustainable reintegration Vocational training should be based on market and labour market real demands Capacity building of governments, national organisations and service providers should start as early as possible, preferably before final peace agreement is reached Lessons Gathered


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