All forms of learning and improving human knowledge and capabilities All forms of learning and improving human knowledge and capabilities Education =/= Schooling Education =/= Schooling Types of education: Types of education: Informal: Informal: At home, from our parents and family……. At home, from our parents and family……. On our own, learning by doing On our own, learning by doing At play On the job; at work At play On the job; at work In conversation In our communities In conversation In our communities Formal Formal At day-care, school, college, university, classes… At day-care, school, college, university, classes… Employee training Employee training Formal apprenticeships Formal apprenticeships
General socialization; Ethical Community & citizenship responsibility Fundamental personal empowerment Improvement in personal and family quality of life Joy of learning…an end in itself Understanding the world and ourselves Human capital: of particular relevance here
Human Capital The economists term for the knowledge and skills that workers acquire through education, training, and experience. Produced through investment in people E xamples: education, family environmenthealth, nutrition, sanitation, on-the-job training; water availability,
Education and Development In general: education promotes development and development promotes education How and why? How and why?
Education and Development How does education promote development?
Education and Development How does education promote development? Basic literacy and numeracy are indispensible for coping and survival in the modern world Generates skills of all sorts needed in the economy via nutrition, health, child-care spill-overs or externalities Improved parental, esp. mothers education builds human capital of children; e.g. via nutrition, health, child-care spill-overs or externalities Improves quality of entrepreneurship on farms and in other economic activities
But education on its own will not produce development; Public policy mess-ups, institutional stupidities and political dysfunction all can overwhelm good education and produce stagnation and contraction
Education and Development How does development promote education?
Education and Development How does development promote education? Development (sustainable growth plus equity) generates the resources that can improve and support education Development (sustainable growth plus equity) generates the resources that can improve and support education Growth leads to increased tax revenues for public education expenditures; Growth leads to increased tax revenues for public education expenditures; Higher family incomes permit increased family financing of education Higher family incomes permit increased family financing of education
Education and African Development History: 1. 1. The Pre-Colonial Era: Mainly Informal Education 2. 2. The Colonial Era Exclusion and Neglect But a launching of formal education systems in most countries Post-Independence Era Hich Priority and Rapid Expansion Problems: High Costs of expansion for young populations Quality suffered with rapid expansion Gender, regional urban/rural imbalances Balance among levels of education Financial and equity issues
Trends in African Education: Gross Enrollment Ratios 197020002007 Primary51.081.794.0 Secondary6.325.730.0 Tertiary0.83.65.0 Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2009
Sub-Saharan Africa: Percent of Children Completing Primary School Millennium Development Targets and Actual Rates
School Attainment by Gender Ratio of Female to Male, Per Cent Region19602000 South Asia Middle East and North Africa Sub Saharan Africa Latin America & Carib. East Asia 25% 51% 59% 83% 50% 52% 60% 71% 96% 84%
Gender Disparity in African Education and the MDG Goal Gender disparity is measured by the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary and secondary schools. Most regions are on track to achieve this target by 2015.
Analyzing Education: Costs and Benefits, Private and Social Private Costs and Benefits: Private Costs and Benefits: Social Costs and Benefits Social Costs and Benefits
Analyzing Education: Costs and Benefits, Private and Social Private Benefits: Private Benefits: Personal empowerment Personal empowerment Lifetime earnings Lifetime earnings Greater potential for participation Greater potential for participation Consumption benefits? Consumption benefits? Private Costs Private Costs Earnings foregone (opportunity cost) Earnings foregone (opportunity cost) Direct costs (fees, supplies, board & lodging) Direct costs (fees, supplies, board & lodging)
Analyzing Education: Costs and Benefits, Private and Social Social Benefits Social Benefits Improved productivity benefits all Improved productivity benefits all Improved nutrition, health, child-care spill-overs or externalities, especially from womens education Improved nutrition, health, child-care spill-overs or externalities, especially from womens education Improved potential for tech change and productive entrepreneurship Improved potential for tech change and productive entrepreneurship More effective political participation? More effective political participation? Social Costs Social Costs Resources dedicated to education Resources dedicated to education Opportunity costs to society Opportunity costs to society
Educational Issues for Africa 1. Achieving 100% primary school enrollments 2. Equal access to education for girls and women 3. Expanding secondary education 4. Expanding tertiary education (colleges, universities, training institutes) 5. Relevance of curricula; especially in rural areas 6. Financial and equity issues 7. Balance among primary, secondary and tertiary education
Educational Issues for Africa 1. 1. Achieving 100% primary school enrollments 2. 2. Expanding secondary education Major achievements so far in these areas: note gross enrollment ratios Unevenness of advances among countries 197020002007 Primary51.081.794.0 Secondary6.325.730.0 Tertiary0.83.65.0
Participation in Education for Some African Countries, 2007 CountryPrimar y SecondaryTertiaryAdult Literacy M F South Africa103961589 87 Ghana9649672 58 Kenya10650Na Zimbabwe10140Na95 88 Botswana10776583 Nigeria97321080 64 Malawi12628079 65 Ethiopia91303Na D. R. Congo85334Na All Africa9432571 54 Source: UNDP. Human Development Report, 2007/2008
Educational Issues for Africa, continued 2. 2. Equal access to education for girls and women Why the imbalances? Cultural traditions in some countries; At home tradition for women; Early withdrawal for work at home Income potentials for males outside the home? Lack of resources Policy approach of governments Early pregnancies; early marriage Most countries are catching up regarding womens education, quickly enough? A Millennial Development Goal
Educational Issues for Africa, continued 4. Expanding Tertiary Education High cost High cost Quality issue Quality issue Equity issue Equity issue Brain drain issue Brain drain issue Curriculum relevance? Curriculum relevance?
Educational Issues for Africa, continued 5. Relevance of curricula; especially in rural areas Are school-leavers also village- leavers? (Rural brain drain?) Education for Development
6. Financial and equity issues 7. Balance among primary, secondary and tertiary education Educational Issues for Africa, continued
Public Expenditure per Student per Year as a Percent of GDP pc CountryPrimarySecondaryTertiary Botswana16.141.2440.6 Burundi20.077.5363.1 Ghana18.429.1213.4 Mauritius10.317.440.4 Niger28.746.1371.4 Rwanda10.2365.1372.8 South Africa15.616.744.3 Canada na Na USA22.224.626 Source: : World Bank, World Development report, 2009, Table 2.11
6 and 7. The Issue of Balance and Fairness among Levels of Education
Educational Issues for Africa 8. Improving Quality while the systems expand rapidly A Major task. How can this be done??
8. Improving Quality while the systems expand rapidly How can this be done?? Increase resource allocations (from Taxation via economic growth) Easily said, hard to do; Relevamce of economic growth to undergird tax increases and education Better teacher training; better salaries to incentivate good work Improve ability of children to learn (nutrition at school sometimes) Concentrate attention on primary schools ? Reconsider financing for higher education ?