Presentation on theme: "Education & Development in Africa Nnadozie- 10. Summary: Chapter 10-Education 1.Introduction 2.Evolution & Transformation of Education Education in colonial."— Presentation transcript:
Summary: Chapter 10-Education 1.Introduction 2.Evolution & Transformation of Education Education in colonial Africa The Post-independence period 3.Education and Development Economic Theory of Education &Growth Education’s Role in Economic Growth Macroeconomic Impact of Education 4. Education and Future Growth Education, Income and other benefits 5.Educational Crisis in Africa 6. Educational Policy for Africa
1.Evolution & Transformation Modern Education was Neglected in Colonial Africa before 1960. i.e. Colonial powers neglected education. Following independence a commitment was made in 1965 by African governments Several strong universities were built in countries such as Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, etc
Education during Colonial Period: Prior 1960 Education was neglected in Colonial Africa Curriculum was Euro-centric and did not reflect the needs of Africans. There was “educational dualism” based on race: One for colonialists/ Europeans and the other for Africans. So, the colonial education did not prepare Africans for post-independence period development challenges
The Post-Independence Period Between 1960-80 school enrollment increased by 40% on the average. See enrollment increase in primary and secondary school for selected countries table 10.2 Enrollment has been increasing faster than the population and economic growth capacity in Africa.
The Post-Independence Period 2. There are significant regional, ethnic and gender imbalances. For example female illiteracy as a percent of males is 75% in Senegal, and 85% in Kenya. 3. Post- colonial school curriculum still continues to be patterned after European colonialists, and it has not been adopted to local African conditions.
Education and Development Economists have shown that education plays a key role in economic growth in terms of increased productivity, efficiency and improved income and socialization or social integration. Economics of Education has both cost and benefit dimensions The Costs and Benefits play a key role on individuals and families decision whether they should invest on education. There are both private and social benefits and costs
The Benefits & Costs of Education Private Benefits- include increased earnings and employment, improved health, positive intergenerational effects, etc.. Social Benefits: Improved human capital and health indicators for the whole society and economy. There are external benefits with more enlightened civil society and political leadership. Greater social stability and lower crime for society. Therefore, education needs to be subsidized by the public or government due to external social benefits. Markets or private sector will under produce education due to its spillover effects not captured by markets or the private sector
Education’s Role in Economic growth Studies show that marginal productivity of education is high in Africa. It is the highest in countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, Algeria, and Mozambique. Macroeconomic Impact of Education can be shown in the following economic model Y= F(L, K, N, E, T), where Y=output, L=labor, K=capital, N=natural resources, T= Technology E= entrepreneurship This, a production function or PPF
Education and Future Economic Growth We can use PPF to show the potential for the effect of education on future growth as in figure 10.1 Current choices of an economy (in terms of consumer vs education) will determine future potential for growth. More investment on education compared to current consumer goods will increase future growth. See figure 10.1 in the text or Graphical illustration on the board
Education, Income and Other Benefits See the relationship between adult illiteracy (AL) and per capita income (PI) AL = f( PI), Low PI is associated with high AL in general- see figure 10.2 for scatter diagram. For example, Niger has the highest illiteracy rate and lowest income Botswana has a high income and low illiteracy
The Special Benefit of Female Education Education increases the opportunity cost of women staying home. And also “As pillars of family life, educated women are better able to institute child care and family care. Child survival and success in school and child nutrition is better assured at homes where mothers have better education. Thus, Improving the education of women and girls is a very important means of ensuring future all-round development of families, communities, and nations” (Psachropoulos, G. 1984, quote on page 217 of Nnadozie text)
Conclusions from the Literature of Economics of Education African states often have higher rates of return for education than investment in physical capital Investment on basic (primary) education yields higher social return than spending at higher levels of education. Social returns to investment in education in Africa are greatest for primary education and least for university education. Education contributes over 15% to economic growth and less than 10% in Europe and N.America There is a mismatch between school curricula and labor market or employment needs of African economies There is educational crisis in Africa reflected in high drop out rates and gross enrollment declines in the 1980s.
Educational Policy for Africa Africa has the highest birth rate in the world, and its current population of about 750 million will double in 25 years Population is “young” i.e. 50% of the population is under 15. Under this condition it is impossible to provide universal education for all Africans
Africa’s expenditure in relations to other regions Comparative educational expenditures per person for Africa are deficient relative to other regions. Africa $16, Asia $68, Arab states $134 Industrial states $769 per person This may be where International Aid will do some good? See Public Expenditure as a % of GNP for some African states. They range from 0.7% (Nigeria) to 9.1% (Namibia) for 1997
The “Brain Drain” from Africa Illiteracy Rates are high and vary among states. The 1995 data shows it ranges from Chad (85% highest) to Zimbabwe (lowest (14.9%)- see table 10.5 African brain drain is serious. It involves : Loss of highly skilled workers (Doctors, Engineers, et). This is human capital loss. It leads to heavy dependence on expatriates or foreign experts, undermines the capacity to train new generation of Africans.
What Causes the Brain Drain There are “push” and “pull” factors Push factors include- poverty, lack of opportunity, lack of political freedom, conflict, wars, personal insecurity, etc.. Pull factors: Perceived better opportunity, freedom, professional advance, better income or wages, schools for children in Industrial countries such as the USA.
Educational Quality vs. Quantity Quantity of schools have increased sometimes for political reasons. But, the quality is low. For example, Nigeria during the oil boom of 1970s built a large number of universities. But, these Universities lacked the faculty, laboratories and, library facilities. A mere increase in buildings do not make great universities!
African Education is not development Oriented It needs to be re-focused on African needs Curriculum needs to be re-designed to fulfill local needs. Education must match local job needs and requirements. There is a need to eliminate educational gap based on income and gender Education of females is especially crucial for development.