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Inclusion in Physical Education 1 LRE, Mainstreaming, and Inclusion Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia.

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Presentation on theme: "Inclusion in Physical Education 1 LRE, Mainstreaming, and Inclusion Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inclusion in Physical Education 1 LRE, Mainstreaming, and Inclusion Martin E. Block, Ph.D. Curry School of Education University of Virginia

2 Inclusion in Physical Education 2 Definitions Least Restrictive Environment Least Restrictive Environment Mainstreaming Mainstreaming Regular Education Initiative Regular Education Initiative Inclusion Inclusion Least Restrictive Environment Least Restrictive Environment

3 Inclusion in Physical Education 3 Least Restrictive Environment LRE defined in federal law: LRE defined in federal law: To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities...are educated with children without disabilities, and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from regular education environments occur only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (Federal Register, August, 1977, p ).

4 Inclusion in Physical Education 4 Mainstreaming Process of placing eligible children into regular education classes with appropriate services determined by the IEP. Process of placing eligible children into regular education classes with appropriate services determined by the IEP. providing most appropriate education in LRE providing most appropriate education in LRE placement based an assessed educational needs placement based an assessed educational needs provide support to general educators provide support to general educators uniting general and special education uniting general and special education (CEC definition of mainstreaming in 1975)

5 Inclusion in Physical Education 5 Regular Education Initiative Consolidate the dual system of special and regular education to serve students with mild disabilities more effectively in regular education (Will, 1986). Consolidate the dual system of special and regular education to serve students with mild disabilities more effectively in regular education (Will, 1986). increased instructional time increased instructional time empowerment of principals to control all programs and resources at the building level empowerment of principals to control all programs and resources at the building level provision of support systems for regular ed. teachers provision of support systems for regular ed. teachers use of new approaches such as curriculum based assessment, cooperative learning, and personalized curricula (Will, 1986). use of new approaches such as curriculum based assessment, cooperative learning, and personalized curricula (Will, 1986).

6 Inclusion in Physical Education 6 Perceived Problems with LRE (Taylor, 1988) LRE legitimizes restrictive environments. LRE legitimizes restrictive environments. LRE confuses segregation and integration on the one hand with intensity of services on the other. LRE confuses segregation and integration on the one hand with intensity of services on the other. LRE is based on a readiness model LRE is based on a readiness model LRE supports primacy of professional decision making LRE supports primacy of professional decision making LRE direct attention to physical setting rather than services LRE direct attention to physical setting rather than services

7 Inclusion in Physical Education 7 Inclusion Placement in home school. Placement in home school. Basing these students in age-appropriate, regular education classrooms. Basing these students in age-appropriate, regular education classrooms. Using the principle of natural proportions. Using the principle of natural proportions. Providing supplementary aids and services. Providing supplementary aids and services. Viewing special education (and APE) as a service, not a placement. Viewing special education (and APE) as a service, not a placement.

8 Inclusion in Physical Education 8 Inclusion (continued) Supplementary Aids Special equipment Special equipment Special instruction Special instruction Special peer groupings Special peer groupings Personnel (e.g., peer tutors, teacher assistants) Personnel (e.g., peer tutors, teacher assistants) Individualized programs Individualized programs

9 Inclusion in Physical Education 9 Inclusion (continued) Individualized Programming Long term, top down planning Long term, top down planning Instruction in prioritized curricular content Instruction in prioritized curricular content Individually determined instruction Individually determined instruction

10 Inclusion in Physical Education 10 Least Restrictive Environment LRE defined in federal law: LRE defined in federal law: To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities...are educated with children without disabilities, and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from regular education environments occur only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. (Federal Register, August, 1977, p ).

11 Inclusion in Physical Education 11 Continuum of LRE Options...a continuum of alternative placements is available to meet the needs of children with disabilities... including instruction in regular classes, special classes, special schools, home instruction, and instruction in hospitals. (Federal Register, 1977). Placement will be different for each child. Placement will be different for each child. Placement should be in most normal environment in which child can succeed. Placement should be in most normal environment in which child can succeed. Placement should not be based on a label. Placement should not be based on a label.

12 Inclusion in Physical Education 12 Physical Education Placement Options Regular physical education - no support Regular physical education - no support Regular physical education - consult from APE Regular physical education - consult from APE APE conducted within regular physical education APE conducted within regular physical education Part-time regular physical education; part-time elsewhere (flexible schedule) Part-time regular physical education; part-time elsewhere (flexible schedule) Part-time regular physical education; part-time elsewhere (fixed schedule) Part-time regular physical education; part-time elsewhere (fixed schedule) Full-time separate program in regular school Full-time separate program in regular school Full-time separate program in special school Full-time separate program in special school

13 Inclusion in Physical Education 13 Placement Decisions Placement will be different for each child. Placement will be different for each child. Placement should be in most normal environment in which child can succeed. Placement should be in most normal environment in which child can succeed. Placement should not be based on a label. Placement should not be based on a label.

14 Inclusion in Physical Education 14 Court Cases Related to LRE Roncker (OH, 1983) Roncker (OH, 1983) Daniel (TX, 1989) Daniel (TX, 1989) Greer (GA, 1991) Greer (GA, 1991) Oberti (NJ, 1993) Oberti (NJ, 1993) Holland (CA, 1994) Holland (CA, 1994) Klinton (TX, 1993) Klinton (TX, 1993)

15 Inclusion in Physical Education 15 Roncker v. Walters (Ohio) 1983 Case Law Case Law Principal of Portability Principal of Portability What makes special placement so special? What makes special placement so special? Can this specialness be brought to regular class? Can this specialness be brought to regular class? Benefits to child? Benefits to child? Disruptions? Disruptions?

16 Inclusion in Physical Education 16 Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education (Texas) 1989 Daniel R.R. Test Can education in regular classroom, with supports, be achieved satisfactorily? Can education in regular classroom, with supports, be achieved satisfactorily? If it cannot, has the school mainstreamed the child to the maximum extent appropriate? If it cannot, has the school mainstreamed the child to the maximum extent appropriate?

17 Inclusion in Physical Education 17 Daniel R.R. (Cont.) Can Education in Regular Class, with Support, be Achieved? Can Education in Regular Class, with Support, be Achieved? Did school system take steps to include student? Did school system take steps to include student? Will student receive any educational benefit? Will student receive any educational benefit? Were there any negative effects on other children? Were there any negative effects on other children?

18 Inclusion in Physical Education 18 Other Important Court Cases Greer v. Rome (GA) City School District (1991) Greer v. Rome (GA) City School District (1991) Predetermination? Predetermination? Non-academic benefit? Non-academic benefit? Financial burden? Financial burden? Oberti v. Borough of Clementon (NJ) School District (1993) Oberti v. Borough of Clementon (NJ) School District (1993) Burden of proof? Burden of proof? Supplementary aids? Supplementary aids? Modifying curriculum? Modifying curriculum?

19 Inclusion in Physical Education 19 Other Important Court Cases (cont.) Sacramento (CA) City Unified School District v. R. Holland (1994). Sacramento (CA) City Unified School District v. R. Holland (1994). Educational benefit (same?) Educational benefit (same?) Non-academic benefit Non-academic benefit Effects on teacher and other children Effects on teacher and other children Cost of supplementary aids Cost of supplementary aids Klinton v. Corpus Christi (TX) ISD (1993) Klinton v. Corpus Christi (TX) ISD (1993) Behavior problems Behavior problems


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