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Fundamental Principles of Pest Control Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri-Columbia.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamental Principles of Pest Control Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri-Columbia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamental Principles of Pest Control Dr. Richard M. Houseman Department of Entomology University of Missouri-Columbia

2 Objectives Unit 1: pg. 1-39 Applying Pesticides Correctly –Pests –Identification and Damage Insects Plant Diseases Weeds Vertebrates –Pest Management –Pesticides Mode of Action

3 Core Manual Learning Objectives –Clues to what is important Terms to Know –Definitions of common words Test Your Knowledge –Example test questions

4 Pest Management (pg.5) Objectives 1.Prevention = keep from becoming a problem 2.Suppression = reducing to an acceptable level 3.Eradication = destroying an entire pest population

5 Management Strategies Mechanical Exclusion/removal Heat/cold Biological Natural enemies, microbials Pheromones/hormones Cultural Tilling, burning, mowing, flooding Crop rotation, trap crops Planting/harvest timing

6 Management Strategies Sanitation Eliminate breeding sites Remove pathogens/sources Disinfect equipment/tools Host Resistance Using disease-resistant varieties Genetics Manipulate host resistance Sterility in pest

7 Management Strategies Chemical The use of natural or synthetic substances that directly cause the death, repulsion, or attraction of pests. Considerations Mode of Action Persistence Non-target effects Resistance

8 Mode of Action –The way a chemical kills a pest. Examples: Repellents, poisons, eradicants, systemics

9 Persistence Persistence –The length of time a chemical is active after being applied. Categories: Non-Persistent –Kills the pest, breaks down in a relatively short period of time Persistent –Residues remain active for period of time after application

10 Non-Target Effects –Pesticide effects on non-pest organisms. Potential risks: May kill beneficial organisms May create new pests –Ex.-Killing natural enemies of a non-pest.

11 Resistance Resistance –Lessening of the effectiveness of a pesticide for reducing the pest population Principles: Chemicals kill only susceptible pests Survivors pass traits for survival to their offspring Resistance develops over generations

12 Resistance To promote: –Use same pesticide repeatedly –Use over large areas –Use highly residual chemicals To limit: –Rotate pesticides –Target applications –Use persistent chemicals wisely

13 Pests (pg.3) A Pest is any unwanted organism –Based on what organism does, not on what they are. Compete for food or water Cause injury, disease, or annoyance

14 Pests (pg.3) Types of Pests 1.Continuous = nearly always present 2.Sporadic = occasionally present; migratory/cyclical 3.Potential = not normally pests, require control only in certain situations

15 Pest Identification (pg.3) How to Identify? Physical features Damage or Symptoms Why Identify? Pests differ in their habitats, behavior, life cycles, and susceptibility to control methods.

16 Insect & Insect-like Pests (pg.6 ) Physical Features Segmented bodies Jointed appendages Exoskeleton made of chitin Bilateral symmetry

17 Insects Three body regions (pg.6) Head –1 Pair of antennae –Various mouthparts Thorax –3 pairs of legs –2 pairs of wings Abdomen –Body systems

18 Insects Life Cycle (pg.7) –Metamorphosis 1.None Only change is size 2.Gradual Egg, nymph, adult 3.Incomplete Egg, nymph, adult (H 2 O) 4.Complete Egg, larva, pupa, adult

19 Insect-like Groups (pg.8) Arachnids –Spiders, mites, ticks 2 regions, 8 legs Crustaceans –Pillbugs 3 regions, >8 legs Chilopods –Centipedes Many regions & legs Diplopods –Millipedes Many regions & legs

20 Insect-like Groups Nematodes –Microscopic roundworms Mollusks –Slugs, snails Look like insect larvae –Non-segmented –No metamorphosis

21 Insect Pests of Plants (pg.10) Types of damage –Leaf eating –Plant-sucking –Internal feeding –Stem boring –Root feeding

22 Pests of Animals (pg.11) Types of damage –Stinging –Biting –Blood sucking –Toxin injecting

23 Insecticides (pg.15) Modes of Action 1.Repellents Keep insects away from an area or host 2.Disrupters Interfere mechanically with body function 3.Poisons Deactivate biological systems in the body –Stomach = must be eaten –Contact = must be touched

24 Plant Pathogens (pg.16) Plant Disease –Any condition that causes a plant to function or appear different from normal

25 Plant Diseases (pg.16) Plant Responses to Disease Agents 1.Overdeveloped tissues ie. galls, leaf curls, swelling 2.Underdeveloped tissues ie. stunting, lack of chlorophyll 3.Death of Tissues ie. leaf spot, wilting, blight, cankers

26 Plant Diseases Pathogens include: –Fungi –Bacteria –Viruses –Mycoplasmas

27 Fungi (pg.16) Feed on other organisms Most are beneficial –Decomposers A few parasites –Feed on living plant tissues Reproduce by spores Microscopic, resistant stage

28 Fungi Symptoms Soft rot of fruit Rusts, smuts Curling, powdery mildew of leaves Spots on leaves

29 Bacteria (pg.17) Microscopic Symptoms Blights, spots, rots Reproduce by cell division

30 Viruses (pg.17) Sub-microscopic Symptoms Abnormal growth, mosaics Reproduce inside host cell Vector transfer

31 Mycoplasmas (pg.17) Smallest living things Plant-feeders Symptoms Yellow, stunting Reproduce independently Insects, mites, grafting

32 Fungicides & Bactericides Modes of Action (pg.20) –Protectants Applied before or during initial infection –Eradicants Applied after infection –Systemics Internal transport to all tissues of plant

33 Weeds (pg.21) A weed is any plant growing where it is not wanted. Effects: –Compete for resources –Contaminate harvest –Harbor pests or release toxins –Look bad

34 Weeds Development (pg.21) –Seedling –Vegetative Producing leaves, stems, roots –Reproductive Producing flowers, seeds –Maturity

35 Weeds Life Cycles (pg.21) –Annuals = one year –Biennials = two years –Perennials = more that two years

36 Weed Identification (pg.22) Grasses Narrow, parallel veins, round stems Sedges Narrow, parallel veins, triangular stems Broadleaves Fan-like, branching veins

37 Herbicides (pg.25) Modes of Action –Contact kills parts of plant the chemical touches –Translocated absorbed and distributed throughout the plant –Selective kills only undesireable plants –Non-selective kills all plants in an area or

38 Herbicides

39 Herbicides (pg.26) Modes of Action (cont) –Foliar Applied to leaves of the weed (foliage) –Soil Applied to the ground around the weed Example: 2,4-D is a foliar-translocated-nonpersistent-selective or

40 Vertebrates (pg.29) Have backbones Many potential pests Various situations and impacts. Eat crops, kill livestock, transmit disease, contamination, etc.

41 Poisons (pg.30) Few pesticides available –Rodenticides: most commonly-used –Piscicides –Avicides Usually highly toxic to humans

42 Summary Identification of the pest and an understanding of its biology is important. The best pest management programs combine all of the available control tactics. When using chemicals, it is important to understand their mode of action, persistence, risk of resistance, and their effect on non-target organisms.

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