Management Strategies Sanitation Eliminate breeding sites Remove pathogens/sources Disinfect equipment/tools Host Resistance Using disease-resistant varieties Genetics Manipulate host resistance Sterility in pest
Management Strategies Chemical The use of natural or synthetic substances that directly cause the death, repulsion, or attraction of pests. Considerations Mode of Action Persistence Non-target effects Resistance
Mode of Action –The way a chemical kills a pest. Examples: Repellents, poisons, eradicants, systemics
Persistence Persistence –The length of time a chemical is active after being applied. Categories: Non-Persistent –Kills the pest, breaks down in a relatively short period of time Persistent –Residues remain active for period of time after application
Non-Target Effects –Pesticide effects on non-pest organisms. Potential risks: May kill beneficial organisms May create new pests –Ex.-Killing natural enemies of a non-pest.
Resistance Resistance –Lessening of the effectiveness of a pesticide for reducing the pest population Principles: Chemicals kill only susceptible pests Survivors pass traits for survival to their offspring Resistance develops over generations
Resistance To promote: –Use same pesticide repeatedly –Use over large areas –Use highly residual chemicals To limit: –Rotate pesticides –Target applications –Use persistent chemicals wisely
Pests (pg.3) A Pest is any unwanted organism –Based on what organism does, not on what they are. Compete for food or water Cause injury, disease, or annoyance
Pests (pg.3) Types of Pests 1.Continuous = nearly always present 2.Sporadic = occasionally present; migratory/cyclical 3.Potential = not normally pests, require control only in certain situations
Pest Identification (pg.3) How to Identify? Physical features Damage or Symptoms Why Identify? Pests differ in their habitats, behavior, life cycles, and susceptibility to control methods.
Insect & Insect-like Pests (pg.6 ) Physical Features Segmented bodies Jointed appendages Exoskeleton made of chitin Bilateral symmetry
Insects Three body regions (pg.6) Head –1 Pair of antennae –Various mouthparts Thorax –3 pairs of legs –2 pairs of wings Abdomen –Body systems
Insects Life Cycle (pg.7) –Metamorphosis 1.None Only change is size 2.Gradual Egg, nymph, adult 3.Incomplete Egg, nymph, adult (H 2 O) 4.Complete Egg, larva, pupa, adult
Insect-like Groups (pg.8) Arachnids –Spiders, mites, ticks 2 regions, 8 legs Crustaceans –Pillbugs 3 regions, >8 legs Chilopods –Centipedes Many regions & legs Diplopods –Millipedes Many regions & legs
Insect-like Groups Nematodes –Microscopic roundworms Mollusks –Slugs, snails Look like insect larvae –Non-segmented –No metamorphosis
Insect Pests of Plants (pg.10) Types of damage –Leaf eating –Plant-sucking –Internal feeding –Stem boring –Root feeding
Pests of Animals (pg.11) Types of damage –Stinging –Biting –Blood sucking –Toxin injecting
Insecticides (pg.15) Modes of Action 1.Repellents Keep insects away from an area or host 2.Disrupters Interfere mechanically with body function 3.Poisons Deactivate biological systems in the body –Stomach = must be eaten –Contact = must be touched
Plant Pathogens (pg.16) Plant Disease –Any condition that causes a plant to function or appear different from normal
Herbicides (pg.25) Modes of Action –Contact kills parts of plant the chemical touches –Translocated absorbed and distributed throughout the plant –Selective kills only undesireable plants –Non-selective kills all plants in an area or
Herbicides (pg.26) Modes of Action (cont) –Foliar Applied to leaves of the weed (foliage) –Soil Applied to the ground around the weed Example: 2,4-D is a foliar-translocated-nonpersistent-selective or
Vertebrates (pg.29) Have backbones Many potential pests Various situations and impacts. Eat crops, kill livestock, transmit disease, contamination, etc.
Poisons (pg.30) Few pesticides available –Rodenticides: most commonly-used –Piscicides –Avicides Usually highly toxic to humans
Summary Identification of the pest and an understanding of its biology is important. The best pest management programs combine all of the available control tactics. When using chemicals, it is important to understand their mode of action, persistence, risk of resistance, and their effect on non-target organisms.