6Management Strategies SanitationEliminate breeding sitesRemove pathogens/sourcesDisinfect equipment/toolsHost ResistanceUsing disease-resistant varietiesGeneticsManipulate host resistanceSterility in pest
7Management Strategies ChemicalThe use of natural or synthetic substances that directly cause the death, repulsion, or attraction of pests.ConsiderationsMode of ActionPersistenceNon-target effectsResistance
8Mode of Action Mode of Action The way a chemical kills a pest. Examples:Repellents, poisons, eradicants, systemics
9Persistence Persistence The length of time a chemical is active after being applied.Categories:Non-PersistentKills the pest, breaks down in a relatively short period of timePersistentResidues remain active for period of time after application
10Non-Target Effects Non-Target Effects Pesticide effects on non-pest organisms.Potential risks:May kill beneficial organismsMay create new pestsEx.-Killing natural enemies of a non-pest.
11Resistance Resistance Lessening of the effectiveness of a pesticide for reducing the pest populationPrinciples:Chemicals kill only susceptible pestsSurvivors pass traits for survival to their offspringResistance develops over generations
12Resistance To promote: To limit: Use same pesticide repeatedly Use over large areasUse highly residual chemicalsTo limit:Rotate pesticidesTarget applicationsUse persistent chemicals wisely
13Pests (pg.3) A Pest is any unwanted organism Based on what organism does, not on what they are.Compete for food or waterCause injury, disease, or annoyance
14Pests (pg.3) Types of Pests Continuous = nearly always present Sporadic = occasionally present; migratory/cyclicalPotential = not normally pests, require control only in certain situations
15Pest Identification (pg.3) How to Identify?Physical featuresDamage or SymptomsWhy Identify?Pests differ in their habitats, behavior, life cycles, and susceptibility to control methods.
16Insect & Insect-like Pests (pg.6) Physical FeaturesSegmented bodiesJointed appendagesExoskeleton made of chitinBilateral symmetry
17Insects Three body regions (pg.6) Head Thorax Abdomen 1 Pair of antennaeVarious mouthpartsThorax3 pairs of legs2 pairs of wingsAbdomenBody systems
18Insects Life Cycle (pg.7) Metamorphosis None Gradual Incomplete Only change is sizeGradualEgg, nymph, adultIncompleteEgg, nymph, adult (H2O)CompleteEgg, larva, pupa, adult
19Insect-like Groups (pg.8) ArachnidsSpiders, mites, ticks2 regions, 8 legsCrustaceansPillbugs3 regions, >8 legsChilopodsCentipedesMany regions & legsDiplopodsMillipedes
20Insect-like Groups Nematodes Mollusks Look like insect larvae Microscopic roundwormsMollusksSlugs, snailsLook like insect larvaeNon-segmentedNo metamorphosis
21Insect Pests of Plants (pg.10) Types of damageLeaf eatingPlant-suckingInternal feedingStem boringRoot feeding
22Pests of Animals (pg.11) Types of damage Stinging Biting Blood sucking Toxin injecting
23Insecticides (pg.15) Modes of Action Repellents Disrupters Poisons Keep insects away from an area or hostDisruptersInterfere mechanically with body functionPoisonsDeactivate biological systems in the bodyStomach = must be eatenContact = must be touched
24Plant Pathogens (pg.16) Plant Disease Any condition that causes a plant to function or appear different from normal
25Plant Diseases (pg.16) Plant Responses to Disease Agents Overdeveloped tissuesie. galls, leaf curls, swellingUnderdeveloped tissuesie. stunting, lack of chlorophyllDeath of Tissuesie. leaf spot, wilting, blight, cankers
37Herbicides (pg.25) Modes of Action or or Contact Translocated kills parts of plant the chemical touchesTranslocatedabsorbed and distributed throughout the plantSelectivekills only undesireable plantsNon-selectivekills all plants in an areaoror
39Herbicides (pg.26) Modes of Action (cont’) or Foliar Soil Example: Applied to leaves of the weed (foliage)SoilApplied to the ground around the weedExample:2,4-D is a foliar-translocated-nonpersistent-selectiveor
40Vertebrates (pg.29) Have backbones Many potential pests Various situations and impacts.Eat crops, kill livestock, transmit disease, contamination, etc.
41Poisons (pg.30) Few pesticides available Rodenticides: most commonly-usedPiscicidesAvicidesUsually highly toxic to humans
42SummaryIdentification of the pest and an understanding of its biology is important.The best pest management programs combine all of the available control tactics.When using chemicals, it is important to understand their mode of action, persistence, risk of resistance, and their effect on non-target organisms.