2 Chapter objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to: IntroductionWhy Should You Learn About Information Technology?Doing Business in the Digital EconomyBusiness Pressures, Organizational Responses, and IT SupportInformation SystemsInformation Technology Developments and Trends
3 Introduction Any company relies on several strategic elements such as operations management.the expansion of the markets and clientelesfinancial managementresearch and development, etc.Doing business foreign countries, the company had difficulties expanding its business in a fast-changing business environment and was unable to enjoy the profit margin of some of its competitorsThe issues that are strategic to the success of companies working in information technology (IT)
4 What is Information Technology (IT)? This is a general term which relates to the use of computers asAn aid to creating and maintaining data, information.IT is related to all aspects of managing and processing informationStorage, especially within a large organization.Computers are critical to managing information, and computer departments within large organizations are often called IT departments. Alternative phrases are IS departments (Information Services) or MIS departments (Management Information Services). People working with computers within large companies will often refer to their job, as “working in IT”
5 What is Information Technology (IT)? Basic of computer is:Hardware: is a set of devices such as processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer. Together, they accept data and information, process them, and display them that you can see or handing it.Software is a set of programs that instruct the hardware to process data such as Office application (Ms Word, Ms Excel, Ms Access,…), Graphic (Adobe Photoshop,…) that you can not touch or hands it.
6 Why Should You Learn About IT? The field of IT is growing rapidly, especially with the introduction of the Internet and e-commerce, so the organizational impacts keep increasing.We are becoming more and more dependent on information systems. In this part of the chapter we describe some specific benefits you can derive from studying IT.A major role of IT is being a facilitator of organizational activities and processes. It is necessary that every manager and professional staff member learn about IT
7 Why Should You Learn About IT? You should learn about IT because being knowledgeable about information technology can also increase employment opportunities.IT staff such as:ProgrammersSystems analystsDesignersIn addition, many well paid opportunities are Internet and e- commerce, m-commerce, network security, object-oriented programming, telecommunications, multimedia design, and document management
8 Position of IT Staff in Company Position or occupations are:Computer software applications engineersComputer support specialistsComputer software systems engineersNetwork and computer systems administratorsNetwork systems and data communications analystsDesktop publishersDatabase administratorsWebsite development
9 Doing Business in the Digital Economy The digital economy means using Web-based systems on the Internet and other electronic networks to do some form of electronic commerce.Web-based systems to support buying, selling, and customer service exemplifies electronic commerce (EC or e-commerce).Business transactions are done electronically over the Internet and other computing networks.EC is becoming a very significant global economic element in the twenty-first century.
10 Infrastructure for ECIs Computing Networking, which connects computers and other electronic devices via telecommunication networks such as:Allow users to access information stored in many placesTo communicate computer desktop, laptop, and mobilephone
11 What is the Digital Economy? The digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital technologies, including digital communication networksthe InternetIntranets, and private value-added networks or VANsComputers,SoftwareOther related information technologies.
12 Business Pressures, Organizational Responses, and IT Support The most important business:Retaining loyal customersImproving productivityCutting costsIncreasing market shareProviding timely organizational responseEnvironmental, organizational, and technological factors are creating a highly competitive business.These factors can change quickly, sometime unpredictably.These activities can be performed in some or all of the processes of the organization, from the daily routines of preparing payroll and order entry, to strategic activities.
13 Business Pressures, Organizational Responses Emphasizing this dramatic change and describe of performance business.These business pressures are forces in the organization’s environment that create pressures on the organization’s operationsOrganizational ResponsesTraditional organizational many old solutions need to be modified, supplemented, or eliminatedResponses categoriesStrategic management and systemsCustomer focusContinuous improvementRestructuringsMake-to-order and mass customizationBusiness alliancesE-business
14 IT SupportsMost response activities can be greatly facilitated by information technology.The business environment contains pressures on organizations, and organizations respond with activities supported by IT
15 Information SystemsAn information system (IS) collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose.An information system includesinputs (data, instructions)outputs (reports, calculations).It processes the inputs by using technology such as PCs and produces outputs that are sent to users or to other systems via electronic networks.
16 Components of information systems Hardware is a set of devices such as processor, monitor, keyboard, and printer. Together, they accept data and information, process them, and display them.Software is a set of programs that instruct the hardware to process data.A database is a collection of related files, tables, relations, and so on, that stores data and the associations among them.A network is a connecting system that permits the sharing of resources by different computers. It can be wireless.Procedures are the set of instructions about how to combine the above components in order to process information and generate the desired output.People are those individuals who work with the system, interface with it, or use its output.
17 IT Developments and Trends In the previous sections, we described the role of IT in supporting business activitiesIT’s developments and trends, and especially the move toward:Web-based computingWireless applicationsIntelligent systemsGeneral Developments and Trends:The cost-performance advantage of computers over manual labor will increase.Graphical and other user-friendly interfaces will dominate PCs.Storage capacity will increase dramatically.Data warehouses will store ever-increasing amounts of information.Multimedia use, including virtual reality, will increase significantly.