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Seas = environmental services Food, Health, Commerce Tourism Biodiversity Environment, protected areas But…

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Presentation on theme: "Seas = environmental services Food, Health, Commerce Tourism Biodiversity Environment, protected areas But…"— Presentation transcript:

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3 Seas = environmental services Food, Health, Commerce Tourism Biodiversity Environment, protected areas But…

4 … we are about 7 billion ( ) people, and many living in coastal urban centers

5 Global Change Physical alteration Seawage Nutrients Sediment mobilisation POPs Hydrocarbons Heavy metals Litter Radionuclides Climate Change...

6 IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories

7 Marine Isotopic Records and Models to Assess Climate Change

8 Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. Dunbar, R. Druffel, E. Al-Rousan, S. Fink, D. Gutierrez, D. Morgenstern, U. Reynaud, S. Sifeddine, A. Skilbeck, G.

9 Objective Apply the latest knowledge and analytical techniques to study the history of ENSO (El Niño – Southern Oscillation) and its teleconnections extending from the Pacific basin into the Indian Ocean and back in time beyond the instrumental era. (NOAA)

10 Strategy Galápagos and Peru Republic of Palau Palmyra Atoll

11 Light filters Temperature controller Tank After 2 months… Skeleton used for measurements (Acropora) Corals as paleo- thermometers

12 The vital effect on 18 O Calcification 18 O

13 Element ratios (Acropora) Mg/Ca Reynaud S, Pagès C, Meibom A, Mortlock R, Fairbanks R, Allemand D. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 71 (2007) Sr/Ca Mainly controlled by water temperature

14 Field calibration: Gulf of Aqaba (Jordan), Porites

15 Consistent and reliable record of SST

16 Anthropogenic record

17 Bomb Radiocarbon as a chronometer and as a ventilation tracer Simulated Surface Ocean Response Atmospheric Forcing 14 C

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19 14 C as a tracer of equatorial wind- induced upwelling Wind induced upwelling Radiocarbon signal Rodgers et al to C of Sub-Antarctic Mode Water (SAMW) 80°N 40°N 20°N 20°S 40°S 80°S EQ 150°E150°W90°W Equatorial UnderCurrrent (EUC)

20 Galapagos EUC Normal 14 C Normal entrainment of SAMW

21 Palmyra atoll ( 6ºN 162ºW )

22 Palmyra P10 TOPBOTTOM

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24 CO 2 graphite H 2 on 560 o C Isotopic fractionation normalized to a 13 C = C = () ( 14 C/ 12 C)sample ( 14 C/ 12 C)standard [ ] Coral CaCO 3 Acidification AMS 14 C by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

25 14 C in Pacific corals Druffel (1987); Druffel et al (2001); Druffel-Rodriguez et al (2011) 14 C

26 14 C in Palmyra coral show Suess effect of C There is no apparent correlation between 14 C and 18 O values. So 14 C values at Palmyra are invariant with climatic parameters, such as ENSO, during the 20 th century. Druffel-Rodriguez et al (2011)

27 14 C in Pacific corals - Suess Effect 2 sigma High upwelling Low upwelling Druffel-Rodriguez et al (2011)

28 Galapagos: Urvina Bay (0°- 91°W)

29 Stuiver and Quay 1980 Robertson et al 2001 Druffel et al | 2 sigma Seasonal time-series Co-occurrence of low 14 C water and Volcanic Activity

30 Seasonal 14 C - Galapagos Pure SAMW? | 2 sigma El Niños

31 Galapagos Sub-Antarctic Mode Water (SAMW) Equatorial Undercurrent

32 Galapagos EUC Normal 14 C Normal entrainment of SAMW

33 Galapagos EUC Lowest 14 C Increased entrainment of SAMW (early 1600s and 1800s)

34 Republic of Palau

35 Grottoli, 2006

36 Ulong Channel (>200 years!) Cold/saline Warm/fresh Cold/saline

37 W longitude 60°90° 120° 0° 30° 60° * Lima N Dissolved oxygen (% saturation) 100 m depth Chlorophyll-a concentration (mg m -3 ) Peruvian continental margin characteristics Sediments without bioturbation

38 Laminated cores Cores with laminated sequences were collected south of 8°S, within the OMZ (<0.1 mL L -1 ) Bioturbated cores were found either below the OMZ or from 8°S towards north The latitudinal gradient likely reflects the exposure of northermost sites to ventilation driven by low-latitude climate courtesy of Lars M77-2, Nov 09

39 A A B0406 B0514 B0509 Pisco is a hotspot for upwelling (active even during summer)

40 Multicores (February 2007) ZoneCore castLatitude S Longitude W Water Depth (m) Penetration (cm) PiscoG-10-MUC-0914º º PiscoG-14-MUC-1614º º PiscoG-15-MUC-2813º º ,5 3 long gravity cores and multicores. MUC sliced cores: each sediment sample was divided, one part for performing radiometric counting (excess 210Pb and bomb-derived radionuclides as 137Cs and 241Am), and other part for bulk analyses of organic matter, grain size, major and trace metals, Rock Eval analyses and minerals. …

41 B13 Core collected during the MPI cruse (April 2005) B13 Core collected during the MPI cruse (April 2005) Rein et al., 2005

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43 Reservoir effect A linear regression between conventional 14 C age and accumulated mass before the 210 Pb time domain, yields the approximate age BP of the record, for which the average ocean reservoir age (R) is calculated. The difference between the curve intercept and the age BP of the origin (90 ± 5 BP, according to the 210 Pb CRS model) is the total reservoir effect (ΔR + R). Thus ΔR is the difference between the total reservoir effect and the average ocean reservoir age (188 ± 79 years). Gutiérrez et al., 2008

44 PC1 Intense Productivity Redox Conditions Terrigenous input Humid conditions MCA Intense Productivity Terrigenous input Evidence of centennial variability of climate and oceanographic conditions. Increase of productivity and redox conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. 1 cm

45 Gutiérrez et al., 2008; Sifeddine et al., 2008; Morales et al; 2006 Abrupt shift at end of LIA

46 Long sedimentary record Focus on Peru continental margin Cores from: ODP Leg 201 Sites 1227, 1228, 1229 Sonne Leg SO147 Sites 106KL, 137SL IMARPE Sites G10, G14 Between 9 o S and 14 o S from oxygen minimum zone

47 Water Depth 1227 – 427 m 1228 – 262 m 1229 – 151 m 106KL – 184 m 137SL - G10 – 313 m G14 – 400 m

48 Laminated Sediments SO KL: cm (early Late Holocene, cal yrBP) SO KL: cm (mid Holocene,~ cal yrBP) B:1H cm (late Deglaciation, cal yrBP) 1 m 1.5 m

49 Sedimentation Pattern HOLOCENE DEGLACIATION Depth (mbsf) Age (cal BP)

50 Summary 150 cm/ka 50 cm/ka 110 cm/ka 10 cm/ka 5-60 cm/ka 260 cm/ka 10 cm/ka

51 AVATECH XRF Core Scanner Calcium Silica:Aluminium Eighteen elements, 2 mm linear scan

52 PC Analysis of XRF data

53 HABs in Mexican Pacific

54 ENSO related?

55 Conclusions Nuclear techniques are very useful to study climate change and oceanographic processes. Some proxies have been studied in laboratory and field conditions. Corals, sediments, sponges, cave deposits and tree rings have been used to study ENSO. ENSO has been present through the Holocene. HABs mechanisms in the Eastern Pacific are better understood. Much work is still on-going !!! Now at UNAM !!!

56 Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. Dunbar, R. Druffel, E. Al-Rousan, S. Fink, D. Gutierrez, D. Morgenstern, U. Reynaud, S. Sifeddine, A. Skilbeck, G.


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