Presentation on theme: "Science, Technology & Innovation Indicators Brunei Darussalam Dr Hazri Kifle, Prof. Yeoul Hwangbo & Dr Abby Tan Faculty of Business, Economics and Policy."— Presentation transcript:
1Science, Technology & Innovation Indicators Brunei Darussalam Dr Hazri Kifle, Prof. Yeoul Hwangbo & Dr Abby Tan Faculty of Business, Economics and Policy Studies Universiti Brunei DarussalamSouth East Asian Regional Workshop on Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators5-8 December 2011
2Content General Information of Brunei Darussalam National Economic Development Plan: Vision 2035Science, Technology & Innovation Key IndicatorsSTI ResearchConclusion
3Brunei Darussalam Population about 401,890 (July 2011 est.) Heavy reliance on the oil and gas sector - accounts for more than 70 % of GDPPer capita – US$48,714 in 2010Brunei Vision 2035 – dynamic and sustainable economy
4Economic Activities Gross domestic product (GDP) BND 20,397.9 million GDP per capitaBND 51,251.0Oil and gas sectorBND 14,300.0 millionNon-oil and gas sectorBND 6,097.9 million<Source> International Monetary Fund, IMF Country Report No.10/134, May 2010The economy was still very much dependent on the oil and gas sector, of which contribution to GDP was 70.1 %.
5Brunei Vision 2035Aims to make Brunei Darussalam, by 2035, as a nationwhich will be widely recognised for the accomplishment of:its educated and highly skilled people as measured by the highest international standardsquality of life that is among the top 10 nationsa dynamic and sustainable economy with income per capita within the top 10 countries in the world
6Current Scenario [Source: Brunei Long Term Development Plan, 2007] Economic growth has not kept pace with population growthThe public sector can no longer absorb the growing numbers of young people wishing to enter the work force each yearThere is a widening gap between the expectations and capabilities of the nation’s youth and the employment opportunities currently being createdThe oil and gas sector employs < 3% of the work forceThe local business community continues to be weak and is unable to create the employment opportunities required
7Roles and Responsibilities National Science and Technology Committee (NSTC) - established in 1994 under the Ministry of DevelopmentBrunei Research Council (BRC) – reformed in 2011Provide funding for all research done by Government agencies
8STI SurveyA preliminary survey was done in 2005/2006
10Key Indicators for R&D Activities (Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007 & Ministry of Development)200220032004Gross Expenditure on R&D- GERD (BND million PPP)1.191.504.80GERD as a % of GDP0.020.030.05Total R&D Personnel per Thousand Labour Force0.890.880.62Higher Education Expenditure on R&D – HERD(BND million PPP)0.370.580.36Business Enterprise Expenditure on R&D –BERD0.0Although there was an increase in the gross expenditure on R&D, the amount of investment on R&D in higher education and businesses were still low.
11GERD source of funds in Brunei Darussalam [Source: Ministry of Development] 200220032004Industry-financed GERD as % of GDP0.00190.0034Government-financed GERD as % of GDP0.01980.02220.0489% of GERD financed by industry8.8406.6641.58% of GERD financed by Government91.16086.77692.02
12Comparisons of R&D personnel/ million people (Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007)Brunei DarussalamSingaporeKoreaJapanR&D Personnel per million people2824,3522,9795,085Although there was an increase in the gross expenditure on R&D, the total number of R&D personnel and the amount of investment on R&D in higher education and businesses were still low.
13Researchers (Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007) Researchers (headcount)200220032004Total researchers in Business Enterprise Sector32N/ATotal researchers in Government Sectors616270Total researchers in Higher Education Sector201198174Total Researchers(* Incomplete data)294292244*
14Issues and Challenges (Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007) Absence of a central agency to champion the STI development and identification of specific objectivesIssues in coordinating and integrating STI policyLack of priorityHigher Education Institutions tend to focus more of their resources on teaching and training rather than research.
15Issues and Challenges (Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007) The number of researchers involved in R&D was small compared to other countries in the region.The percentage of the population pursuing higher education was small compared to OECD countries.The proportion of the Brunei population with S&T qualifications was also much lower than any of the OECD countries, showing that R&D personnel per million people are 292 and expenditure of R&D as % of GDP is 0.03% in 2003.
16Issues and Challenges (Source: Brunei Darussalam Long-Term Development Plan, 2007) The expenditure of R&D in this country as percentage of GDP was the lowest.There was also minimal collaboration between higher institutions and private sector in the area of R&D.This was partly due to the fact that majority of local companies did not see a need for any R&D activities.
17Efforts made for STI in 8th NDP 8th National Development Plan ( ) made explicit reference to the crucial role of S&T and R&D for national development.A sum of BND 125 million was allocated for the development of S&T and R&D and about 57% of the total allocation was for financing and feasibility studiesSeveral promotional S&T programmes were organized by various agencies such as the Oil and Gas Discovery Centre (OGDC) and Science, Technology and Environment Partnership Centre (STEP).
189th NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 9th National Development Plan ( ) – Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) as the leverage to accelerate growth and national competitivenessBrunei Darussalam aims to allocate 1% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to research over the next few yearsBrunei Research Council (BRC) to set the policy direction in research and development and innovation, identifying priority science and technology clusters for Brunei niche areasBrunei Economic Development Board (BEDB) to promote foreign direct investment in the non-oil gas and sector, namely health care, pharmaceutical, food and alternative energy
199th NDP (2007-2012) Sectors Allocated (BND$ Million) Percentage % 1. Industry and Commerce1,025.010.82. Transport and Communication1,067.011.23. Social Services3,055.732.24. Public Utilities1,492.715.75. Public Buildings673.07.16. Science & Technology and Research and Development165.21.77. ICT1,145.712.18. Security596.86.39. Miscellaneous278.92.96. Science & Technology and Research and DevelopmentA total of BND 9.5 billion has been allocated for National Development Plan ( ) to finance the implementation of 826 projects within 257 programmes. As part of national development plans, S&T and R&D sector are allocated BND million which accounts for 1.7 per cent of the total scheme value.
20Funding and Infrastructure Development for Universiti Brunei Darussalam
21Specific Research 1Development of a comprehensive R&D indicators for Brunei Darussalam based on Frascati Manual“In an era of rapid technological change, economic growth is increasingly dependent on research and development (R&D). Monitoring industry, government, and university R&D programs is thus crucial to successful policymaking and analysis”. (OECD, 2002)
22Specific Research 2The combination of firms, organisations and institutions for the purpose of innovation - the ‘national system of innovation’The nature of the linkages between university, government and industries is under-studiedCollaboration between government agencies, industries and researchers, although they may appear to be unlikely allies, is important as they have a shared interest in innovation and meeting future needs (Scherlis & Eisenberg, 2003).
23Survey for S&T and R&D Activities Brunei had conducted the survey till 2004, but have not produced data on S&T and R&D activities, with particular emphasis on (i) Human Resources and (ii) R&D Expenditure since 2005.In 2012, Brunei to start conducting the survey to produce S&T statistics and thereby provide S&T and R&D information for policy maker.In order to make sure international comparison, the survey is being conducted in accordance with Frascati Manual
24STI Survey Details Reference period – 2004 to 2011 Type of survey – Qualitative and quantitative, Government fundingIndustrial coverage - Oil and gas, Petro-chemical, and ICT industriesData collection procedure - , mail, in-person interview, secondary dataSample size - all relevant Ministries, agencies, research institutes, statutory body, universities, and industryMain challenges encountered when structuring and carrying out the survey – survey on past periods between 2004 and 2009Timeline of the full process – expected completion in 2012/2013
25Technical Support UNESCO Mentor Country Korean Advanced Institute for Science and Technology (KAIST)Science and Technology Policy Institute (STEPI)
27S&T Survey Database and Decision Supporting System (DSS) Decision Supporting DBGathering Policy InformationDecision Supporting SystemSurvey DBStatistics Information SystemSurvey ActivitiesSurvey results will be managed using Database and information system.IT system and DB will produce statistics of S&T and R&DThe statistics from Survey DB will be converted into decision supporting information for policy makers
29The Survey Template: R & D Human Resource 1. R&D Human ResourcesDefinition of R&D Human Resource- Researcher : Researchers are professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems and also in the management of the projects concerned.- Research Assistant: researchers who are paid by research grants or contracts to work in collaboration with a professor within a faculty, an affiliated research center or an institute. They are not permanent employees because their continued employment depends on continuing support from research grants or contracts. They hold a PhD degree or an equivalent qualification (MD) that would be appropriate for appointment as an assistant professor.- Technician & equivalent staff : persons whose main task requires technical knowledge and experience in one or more fields of engineering, physical and life sciences or social sciences and humanities. They participate in R&D by performing scientific and technical tasks involving the application of concepts and operational methods, normally under the supervision of researchers. Equivalent staff perform the corresponding R&D tasks under the supervision of researchers in the social sciences and humanities.- Clerical staff: Other supporting staff including skilled and unskilled craftsmen, participating in R & D projects or directly associated with such projects.Reference- The Frascati Manual. It is a manual setting out the methodology for the collection of statistics regarding research and development. It was prepared and published by the Organization for Economic cooperation and Development.
302. Age of ResearcherThe Survey on female researcher is being conducted.
313. Researcher's Major and Degree EngineeringCivil engineering, ArchitectureElectric, Electronic, Information, Communication EngineeringMechanical, Aerospace, Atomic EngineeringChemical EngineeringMetal, Material, Fiber EngineeringMedical EngineeringEnvironment, Resource, Marine EngineeringEnvironmental Bio EngineeringIndustrial Bio EngineeringNano TechnologyetcMedicine, PharmacyMedicinePhamacyNursing, Healthetc
32AgricultureAgriculture, Forest, MarineZootechny, Zoology, DairyVeterinaryAgricultural BioetcHumanitiesHistoryLanguage and LiteraturePhilosophy, ReligionArtPhysical ScienceSocial SciencePsychologyEconomics, ManagementEducationSociology, Social Welfare, AnthropologyLawPolitics, Public Administration, PolicyRegion, GeographyMass media, LibarayectTotal