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Production Operations Management

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Presentation on theme: "Production Operations Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Production Operations Management
Process Technology & Layout U. Akinc Bus 241

2 Various Technologies Information Technology Product Technology
Process Technology Bus 241

3 Reasons for Technology
Some of the competitive priorities Improved Product and Service Quality Lower Cost Increased Responsiveness to Market Increased Responsiveness to Customer Safety Bus 241

4 Barriers to Implementation of Technology
Difficulty in Financial Justification Lack of Understanding by Management Concern for the Impact of Technology on the Human Resources traditional ROI based capital budgeting can’t consider non-financial benefits Resistance to change, having to learn “another way” of doing things Fear of loss of jobs due to automation Bus 241

5 Information and Communication Technologies
Electronic Data Interchange Bar Coding (UPC) Electronic Pagers Cellular Telephones Internet/ Intranet Bus 241

6 Bar Code Technology Speeds Data Entry Increases Data Accuracy
Reduces Material Handling Labor Easily Monitors Labor Efficiency Bus 241

7 Process Technology Technology: Manual, Automated or Mental Processes that are Used to Transform Inputs Into Products and Services Advanced Manufacturing Technology or Automation: Substitution of Machines for Human Physical and mental work. Key to usage of automation: Repeatability A task that is performed in large number of repetitions is more apt to be automated Bus 241

8 Automation and Operations Focus
Product Focus: High Volume Standard Products imply High Degree of Repeatability Automation is natural Process Focus: Low Volumes of a wide variety of product and services imply limited repeatability Automation is more challenging Line-Flow = flow-shop In the form of fixed automation Bus 241

9 Fixed Automation Automation of the processes and transfer of parts among stations. Characterized by: High set up cost Rigid Capabilities Extreme efficiency Examples: Assembly Lines Transfer Lines Process industries (e.g., petro-chemicals) Sometimes referred to as Detroit type automation Machines that are linked with automatic materials handling Bus 241

10 An example of fixed automation: Egg processing
Bus 241

11 Flexible Automation Automatic Processes that can be easily changed from one task to another. Characterized by: Low set up costs A range of capabilities Reasonably Efficient Example: Job Shop Bus 241

12 Group Technology Another Attempt to obtain the efficiency of product focus without giving up the flexibility of process focus Elements of Group Technology: Part Families based on commonality of Processing Steps Part Geometry Manufacturing Cells: Arrangement of Equipment best suited for a family Bus 241

13 Computer Integrated Manufacturing(CIM)
Integration of total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems and data communications coupled with new management philosophy that improve organizational and personnel efficiency. (SME) Bus 241

14 CIM An Umbrella term to encompass the integration of:
Product Design/Engineering Process Planning /Development Manufacturing Operations Production/Inventory Control Bus 241

15 Components of CIM 1. CAD: Computer Assisted Design: Use of Computers in interactive engineering drawing, storage and manipulation of existing designs. 2. CAM: Computer Assisted Manufacture: Use of Computers to program, direct and control manufacturing equipment in the fabrication of parts. Bus 241

16 Components of CIM (cont’d)
3. CAPP Computer Assisted Process Planning: Selecting operations, their sequences, tools and material handling systems using interactive computer systems 4. NC Machines Numerically Controlled Machines: Machines which take their instructions from a control device that can be programmed and reprogrammed in software Bus 241

17 Components of CIM (cont’d)
5.Robotics Versatile, programmable devices capable of human like operations. Used Mostly in: Hazardous Repetitive tasks Handling Heavy Parts Such as: Spot welding Inspection Circuit board Assembly Spray Painting Bus 241

18 A Multi-Axes Robot Merlin1 Bus 241

19 Merlin2 A Merlin robot programmed to cut carpet to specified sizes
Bus 241

20 A Merlin Robot spot welding
Bus 241

21 Anatomy of a Merlin robot (has three degrees of freedom or axes)
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22 Gantry Robots work like “Etch-a-sketch”
Gantry Robots work like “Etch-a-sketch”. Movement is on 3 linear axes (x,y,z) as opposed to rotational as in Merlin. This robot is installing the wind shield on a car Gantry1 Bus 241

23 Another Gantry robot: cutting cloth
Bus 241

24 Components of CIM (cont’d)
6. AGV Automatically Guided Vehicles 7. AS/RS Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems Please visit the link Bus 241

25 Automatically Guided vehicle examples
Bus 241

26 Infrastructure of CIM Use of integrated computer software for
Production Scheduling Inventory Control Capacity Planning Shop Floor Control Bus 241

27 Layout Planning Selecting location for and transfer routes and means among work departments: Traditional types : Functional (Process Focus) Line Flow (Product focus) Fixed Position (Project) Modern Group Technology Bus 241

28 Functional Layout Packing Turning Gluing Cutting
Most appropriate for process focus Packing Turning Gluing Painting Sanding Planing Cutting Drilling Resources are organized into functional departments Bus 241

29 Line Flow Layout Product flows through processes A-E
Most appropriate for Product Focus A E B C B D E A C E D A B B C Product flows through processes A-E in a sequence dictated by the assembly requirements of the product. D Bus 241

30 Manufacturing Cells in Group Technology
Cell A Refer back to slide number 12: Group Technology. Here the departments are arranged to produce families of similar parts efficiently Cell B Planing Painting Cell C Bus 241

31 A Part Family Bus 241

32 Manufacturing (GT) Cell
Bus 241

33 Product Process Matrix
Product Variety and Volume Product Process Matrix Many Products- Low Volume Several Products- High Volume One Product- Very High Volume Low Volume- Unique Identified Process Pattern No Flow Project Job Shop Jumbled Flow Mixed with Dominant Flows Batch Assembly Line Line Flow Continuous or Automated Continuous Process Bus 241

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