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Chapter 3 - Product Design & Process SelectionOperations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 2nd Edition © Wiley 2005 PowerPoint Presentation by R.B. Clough - UNH © 2005 Wiley
Product & Service DesignThe process of deciding on the unique characteristics of a company’s product & service offerings Serves to define a company’s customer base, image, competition and future growth © 2005 Wiley
Products versus ServicesTangible offerings Dimensions, materials, tolerances & performance standards Services: Intangible offerings Physical elements + sensory, esthetic, & psychological benefits © 2005 Wiley
Strategic Importance Products & service offerings must support the company’s business strategy by satisfying the target customers’ needs & preferences If not, the company will lose its customer base and its market position will erode © 2005 Wiley
Product Life Cycle Product life cycle stagesIntroduction Growth Maturity Decline Facility & process investment depends on life cycle © 2005 Wiley
Steps in Product DesignIdea Development: A need is identified & a product idea to satisfy it is put together Product Screening: Initial ideas are evaluated for difficulty & likelihood of success Preliminary Design & Testing Market testing & prototype development Final Design Product & service characteristics are set © 2005 Wiley
Idea Development Existing & target customers BenchmarkingCustomer surveys & focus groups Benchmarking Studying “best in class” companies from your industry or others and comparing their practices & performance to your own Reverse engineering Disassembling a competitor’s product & analyzing its design characteristics & how it was made Suppliers, employees and technical advances © 2005 Wiley
Product Screening Operations: Marketing: Finance:Are production requirements consistent with existing capacity? Are the necessary labor skills & raw materials available? Marketing: How large is the market niche? What is the long-term potential for the product? Finance: What is the expected return on investment? © 2005 Wiley
Break-Even Analysis © 2005 Wiley
Break-Even Analysis Total cost = fixed costs + variable costs (quantity): Revenue = selling price (quantity) Break-even point is where total costs = revenue: © 2005 Wiley
Break-Even Analysis ExampleA firm estimates that the fixed cost of producing a line of footwear is $52,000 with a $9 variable cost for each pair produced. They want to know: If each pair sells for $25, how many pairs must they sell to break-even? If they sell 4000 pairs at $25 each, how much money will they make? © 2005 Wiley
Example Solved Break-even point: Profit = total revenue – total costs© 2005 Wiley
Preliminary Design & TestingGeneral performance characteristics are translated into technical specifications Prototypes are built & tested (maybe offered for sale on a small scale) Bugs are worked out & designs are refined © 2005 Wiley
Final Design Specifications are set & then used to:Develop processing and service delivery instructions Guide equipment selection Outline jobs to be performed Negotiate contracts with suppliers and distributors © 2005 Wiley
Other Design factors Design for Manufacture Product Life CycleConcurrent Engineering © 2005 Wiley
Design for Manufacture (DMF)Minimize parts Design parts for multiply applications Use modular design Avoid tools Simplify operations © 2005 Wiley
DFM Benefits Lower costs: Higher quality:Lower inventories (fewer, standardized components) Less labor required (simpler flows, easier tasks) Higher quality: Simple, easy-to-make products means fewer opportunities to make mistakes © 2005 Wiley
Concurrent EngineeringA design approach that uses multifunctional teams to simultaneously design the product & process Replaces a traditional ‘over-the-wall’ approach where one group does their part & then hands off the design to the next group © 2005 Wiley
Sequential Design © 2005 Wiley
Concurrent Engineering© 2005 Wiley
Concurrent Engineering BenefitsRepresentatives from the different groups can better consider trade-offs in cost & design choices as each decision is being made Development time is reduced due to less rework (traditionally, groups would argue with earlier decisions & try to get them changed) Emphasis is on problem-solving (not placing blame on the ‘other group’ for mistakes) © 2005 Wiley
Process Selection Process selection is based on five considerationsType of process; range from intermittent to continuous Degree of vertical integration Flexibility of resources Mix between capital & human resources Degree of customer contact Process types can be: Project Process Batch Process Line Process Continuous Process © 2005 Wiley
Types of Processes Intermittent operations: Continuous operations:Capable of producing a large variety of product designs in relatively low volumes Continuous operations: Capable of producing one (or a few) standardized designs in very high volumes © 2005 Wiley
Continuum of Process Types© 2005 Wiley
Differences between Intermittent and Continuous Operations© 2005 Wiley
Product Strategies and Process Choice© 2005 Wiley
Process Selection Facility Layout© 2005 Wiley
Process Technologies Automation Automated Material Handling:Automated guided vehicles (AGV) Automated storage & retrieval systems (AS/RS) Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software Robotics & Numerically-Controlled (NC) equipment Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) © 2005 Wiley
Service Design Approaches to Service Design:Substitute Technology for People Get the Customer Involved Provide High Level of Customer Attention © 2005 Wiley
Homework Ch. 3 Problems: 1, 2, 4, 5, 8. © 2005 Wiley
Management in Organisations Process Design. What is process design ? The differentiation between manufacturing and service design. When is process design.
CHAPTER 14 PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES.
© 2010 Wiley1 Chapter 3 - Product Design & Process Selection Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 4th Edition © Wiley 2010.
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© Wiley Chapter 1 - Introduction to Operations Management Operations Management by R. Dan Reid & Nada R. Sanders 2 nd Edition © Wiley 2005 PowerPoint.
Chapter 3 - Product Design & Process Selection
Chapter 3 – Product Design & Process Selection
Production and Operations Management
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