Presentation on theme: "Post-2015 Development Agenda: Value Proposition for Physical Education in Africa Jimoh Shehu University of Botswana Presented at PASHDA Conference Maputo."— Presentation transcript:
Post-2015 Development Agenda: Value Proposition for Physical Education in Africa Jimoh Shehu University of Botswana Presented at PASHDA Conference Maputo March 25-29, 2014
Objectives of Presentation Notions of development Critiques of development MDGs – – impacts and gaps Post-2015 Development goals Modernist and post-modernist approaches to designing physical education curriculum Implications of Post-2015 Development goals for physical education praxis
Quantitative Notion of Development This notion of development is linked to Per capita GDP growth, Export balance of payment Foreign reserves Lliberalisation, privatization and deregulation
Critiques of Quantitative Notion of Development Cultural Imperialism Neo-colonialism Corruption-ridden Hierarchical and exclusionary Dependency Technocratic and rapacious Paternalistic Essentialist
Qualitative Notion A process of improving peoples quality of life or life chances in an inclusive, equitable and sustainable manner. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are based on the this notion of development
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) By 2015 achieve the following: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; Achieve universal primary education; Promote gender equality and empower women; Reduce child mortality; Improve maternal health; Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; Ensure environmental sustainability; Develop a global partnership for development
Impacts of MDG8 MDGs have had the following significant effects: Symbolic- rallying point for engagement Political Ethical Catalytic Strategic Developmental (although uneven) impacts around the world in reducing poverty, hunger, child and maternal mortality, exclusion from education, and contraction of malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDs.
Gaps in the implementation of the MDG8 Sustainable production and consumption Good governance Sensitivity to violence and conflict Equity Quality Inclusion Global partnerships Funding Data management Integration of development initiatives (The High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, 2013)
Themes from Post-2015 Global Consultations 1.Eradicate poverty in all its forms 2.Tackle exclusion and inequality 3.Empower women and girls 4.Provide quality education and lifelong learning 5.Improve health 6.Address climate change 7.Address environmental challenges 8.Promote inclusive and sustainable growth and decent employment 9.End hunger and malnutrition 10.Address demographic challenges 11.Enhance the positive contribution of migrants 12.Meet the challenges of urbanization 13.Build peace and effective governance based on the rule of law and sound institutions. 14.Foster a renewed global partnership 15.Strengthen the international development cooperation framework (UN Secretary-General, 2013:13-17)
Theoretical Consideration: Post- modernism Postmodernism encourages skepticism towards metanarratives and canons of certainty, inevitability, universality and fixity which are assumed under the projects of modernity It problematizes any form of authority, dogma, ideology, teleology, hierarchies and boundaries in order to illuminate them and their effects.
Impact of postmodernism Gender egalitarianism in homes Right to vote and inclusion in politics Co-educational institutions. Career shifts in traditionally gendered occupations. Increasing civil, political and social rights Anti-apartheid struggles New historiographies Alternative medicines Curriculum infusion e.g. HIV/AIDS
Postmodernism and Curriculum Postmodernism calls for transformation of curriculum boundaries, content and practices. It enjoins co-construction of reflexive and flexible knowledge that reflects social reality. It emphasizes sensitivity to topical issues such as diversity, empowerment and sustainable development.
Value Proposition for Physical Education How can we offer more nuanced interpretations of the pedagogic role of physical education in development interventions? How can we demonstrate the linkage between physical education epistemologies and social issues? How can physical education provide recognized, growing and adaptable value to society in the context of global development agenda?
Infusion of Post-2015 Development Goals Post-2015 Development Goals can be infused into physical education curriculum and development praxis in terms of: Indicators Targets Interactive topics
An Illustration Goals TargetsIndicatorsSample Curriculum Topics Eradicate poverty in all its forms Access Fitness Safety Security Empowerment Learning Outcomes Employability Skills Enrolment Participation Persistence Transition Rate of injuries Fitness outcomes Progress Learning environment Types, causes and effects of poverty; techniques of wealth creation, distribution and re-distribution; life skills. Tackle exclusion and inequality Inclusion Integration Participation Remediation Equitable allocation Representation Recognition Solidarity Networks Persistence or reduction of: Disadvantages Barriers Chances Discrimination Segregation Rejection Disillusionment School and non-school risk factors Consequences of exclusion and inequality Social justice and human rights arguments for inclusion and equality. Empower women and girls Affirmation Representation Decision making Leadership opportunity Resource allocation Mentoring Capacity building Nature and extent of enabling resources, opportunities, assistance, interventions and learning outcomes. Ratio of female to male by level of access Improvements in gender relations Gender relations Sexism Gender equity/equality Gender sensitivity
Inter-textuality This framework is meant to facilitate debates on the construction of an inter-textual physical education curriculum that goes against the grain of traditional content. It also has implications for teaching and teacher education as well as comparative research and evaluation.
Conclusion The greatest problem facing Africa in particular is improving peoples quality of life. According to Foucault (1991 & 1998) disciplines and curricula are constructed through discourse – and discourse is a site of power. The questions is: will physical education professionals in Africa use their discursive power to respond creatively to the broader socio-political trends and embrace sustainable development thinking in their praxis? The answer calls for sociological imagination and postmodernist vision.