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PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 Welcome Marcella Leonard PPANI Coordinator Gareth Mc Gibbon PBNI.

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Presentation on theme: "PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 Welcome Marcella Leonard PPANI Coordinator Gareth Mc Gibbon PBNI."— Presentation transcript:

1 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 Welcome Marcella Leonard PPANI Coordinator Gareth Mc Gibbon PBNI

2 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 Legislative Structure of PPANI Criminal Justice (NI) Order 2008 Secretary of States Guidance Manual of Practice

3 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 Strategic and Practice Structures of PPANI Strategic Management Board PPANI Coordination Unit PPANI Links Team LAPPP (Local Area Public Protection Panel) LAPPP Chair Designated Risk Manager (DRM)

4 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 PPANI Processes Offender convicted of relevant PPANI offence PPANI Links allocate offender to nearest LAPPP meeting LAPPP Meeting held and category of risk management agreed And DRM appointed Offender reviewed every 16 weeks at LAPPP meeting until Category one status DRM visits offender and completes assessments for each LAPPP

5 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 PPANI Category of Risk Management Category 1 Someone whose previous offending and / or current behaviour and / or current circumstances present little evidence that they could cause serious harm through carrying out a contact sexual or violent offence Category 2 Someone whose previous offending, And / or current behaviour and / or current circumstances present clear and identifiable evidence that they could cause serious harm through carrying out a contact sexual or violent offence

6 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 PPANI Category of Risk Management Category 3 Someone whose previous offending, current behaviour And / or current circumstances present clear and identifiable evidence that they are highly likely to cause serious harm through carrying out a contact sexual or violent offence.

7 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 Current Statistics of persons subject to PPANI Total Prison Community Category Category As of September 2013

8 What is child pornography ? any representation, by whatever means, of a child engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities or any representation of the sexual parts of a child, the dominant characteristic of which is depiction for a sexual purpose The Convention on the Rights of the Child 2002 In N.Ireland we refer to abusive images of children PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

9 PPANI and Internet Offending PPANI came into existence 2008 therefore some offenders through internet will not be known to PPANI Currently 80 persons known to PPANI for Possession of Indecent Images of Children 3 of these are assessed as requiring Category 3 Level of Risk Management 9 currently awaiting assessment, 3 pending 65 assessed at Category 1 level of risk management PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

10 Patterns emerging indicating that where a child is sexually Abused in settings such as home or on street, image making Of their abuse is frequently involved. These images can then be used: inhibit and silence the child traded increases control of the abuser increases likelihood of further types of abusesECPAT 2005 The use of pornography as a sex education tool PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

11 Types of on line violence against children and young people: The production, distribution and use of materials depicting child sexual abuse Online grooming or solicitation Exposure to materials that can cause psychological harm, lead to physical harm or facilitate other detriment to a child Harassment and intimidation, including bullying PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

12 Emerging trends in the technologies impacting on internet abuse: Phones and 3G – the convergence of internet and mobile phones Video / camera apps on mobile phones Online games peer to peer exchanges instant messaging internet cafes / public places PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

13 The impact of these emerging technology developments: demand for sexual activity against children – latency - normalcy - profit cyberspace is influential – boundaries of peoples behaviour online v real world opportunities to harm – vast number of venues and accessibility online v real world the use of pornography -as primary tool - impact of exposure - socialisation PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

14 Distinctive qualities affecting behaviour and interactions in cyberspace: Proximity AccessScope PermanenceVelocity ReinforcementIdentity RealityScale PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

15 Situational offender - curious adult realising an opportunity to access pornography Preferential offender - indiscriminate with deviant sexual attitudes, typically a paedophile with definite interest in children Miscellaneous offender - private investigations, media reporters, adolescent males etc Typologies PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

16 Seto et al 2011 Meta Analysis: 21 online offenders 1 in 8 had history of contact sexual offence 50 % admitted contact sexual offence Putsey Report: 47.8% % treatment group had no contact offences there fore 50% upwards admitted contact offence Bourke and Hernandez (2009) : 84.5% admitted contact offences Neatze et al (2009): 57.4% admitted contact offences Quayle and Taylor (2003): 47.8% admitted contact offences Links to contact offending 16

17 Seto et al 2011 Meta Analysis: 21 online offenders 1 in 8 had history of contact sexual offence 50 % admitted contact sexual offence Putsey Report: 47.8% % treatment group had no contact offences there fore 50% upwards admitted contact offence Bourke and Hernandez (2009) : 84.5% admitted contact offences Neatze et al (2009): 57.4% admitted contact offences Quayle and Taylor (2003): 47.8% admitted contact offences Links to contact offending 17

18 Imitation - offenders replay what they have seen on the computer with a victim Permission giving - offender is given courage by what they have seen and this escalates offending behaviour Reinforcing existing feelings - encourages the individual to act on their feelings and this can happen quickly with the offender entering chat rooms to seek to meet victims Links to contact offending PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

19 Level of conviction in England and Wales All sexual offences 2001 (3,300) (5,000) Internet 2001 (364) (967) USA Overall convictions child abuse in 2007: 47% all other child abuse 53% internet viewing indecent images Links to contact offending PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

20 Seto et al 2011 Meta Analysis: 21 online offenders 1 in 8 had history of contact sexual offence 50 % admitted contact sexual offence Putsey Report: 47.8% % treatment group had no contact offences there fore 50% upwards admitted contact offence Bourke and Hernandez (2009) : 84.5% admitted contact offences Neatze et al (2009): 57.4% admitted contact offences Quayle and Taylor (2003): 47.8% admitted contact offences Links to contact offending PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

21 PPANI Category of Risk Management and Child Protection Risk management v risk to children Engaged in monitoring and supervision but Sexual interest in children grooming/targeting children PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

22 PBNI Response to Internet Sexual Offending The Internet Sexual Offending Treatment Programme (i- SOTP) is part of an overall suite of treatment programmes delivered by PBNI. i-SOTP is designed for offenders in the community subject to statutory supervision by PBNI. The programme caters for offences defined as the making, distribution and production of indecent images. The programme is offered in two formats – group-work and one to one intervention. Programme aims to reduce the likelihood of further internet related offending and lessen the likelihood of contact sexual offending/recidivism. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

23 Why a specific programme? analysis of UK caseload suggested approximately 30% of offenders were convicted of internet related sexual offending. Analysis of psychometrics of contact and internet offenders reveal many shared characteristics Agreed need for an intervention informed by an internet specific focus as well as a focus on general sexual offending risk factors. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

24 Assessing Risk The programme is designed for men who are assessed as low/medium risk and low deviance. Higher risk/deviance offenders will be more suited to existing longer term programmes as such assessments are indicative of a predisposition to commit contact sexual offences. RM2K can be used subject to a number of caveats. Deviance is assessed using standard battery of accredited psychometrics. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

25 Eligibility Males over 21 years (group-work) 17 years and over (1-1) High score on Psychopathy Check List – Revised (PCL- R) IQ < 80 Poor literacy Stable mental health Acute substance misuse Programme ready (absolute denial) Strong command of the English language. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

26 Programme Content and Process The i-SOTP consists of; A pre-programme meeting Completion of pre-treatment programme psychometrics Six modules consisting of 35 x 2 hours group work or 20/30 sessions x 1.5 hours individual work Completion of post programme psychometrics Post programme planning meeting. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

27 Diagrammatic Representation of Model of Change [Beech & Fisher 1998] PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

28 The Internet Behaviour and Attitudes Questionnaire (IBAQ) 137 convicted internet offenders completed the 90 item attitude and behaviour questionnaire. Strong identification of problematic internet use for a self- efficacy and distorted attitudes cluster. IBAQ produced an assessment of low behaviour group associated with 4.5 hours per week internet use and high behaviour group associated with 10 hours use per week. Higher behaviour offenders tended to be involved in accessing images using less common technologies, engaging in trade of images, more habitual behaviours relating to viewing, categorisation and masturbation. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

29 Schematic Representation of Pathways Model of Child Sexual Abuse (Ward & Siegart, 2002) PPANI - Internet Offending 2013 PathwayDistal FactorsSexual preferenceAssociated DeficitsBehaviour Intimacy deficits (Intimacy) Insecure attachment Inability to sustain adult intimacy Normal sexual script operates until rejection, blockage Arousal to child although not preference Emotional loneliness Social skills Cognitive Distortions Entitlement beliefs Target vulnerable child Create pseudo adult-adult loving relationship Distorted Sexual Scripts (arousal) Early or inappropriate sexual experiences Victimisation Fear of rejection Relationships seen as purely sexual Intimacy is equated with sex Children more trustworthy and accepting Low self esteem Craving for love and approval Misreading sexual cues Unsatisfying adult sexual encounters, frustration Seek sex in inappropriate situations (e.g. when angry), inappropriate partners (children), inappropriate activities (e.g. sadistic) Emotional Dysregulation (emotions) Compulsive masturbation in early adolescence Lack of alternatives to increase self-esteem or alleviate negative mood Preference for age related partners but opportunistically use children at times of stress Sex used as coping strategy Problem in emotional recognition Dealing with negative emotion Problem in utilising social supports Inability to manage mood may result in loss of control, which in conjuction with sexual desire leads to disinhibited behaviour Antisocial Cognitions (cognitive) Specific belief systems such as the world is a dangerous place and you have to fight to have your needs satisfied General and extensive record of criminal and antisocial behaviour in youth and adolescence, possible conduct disorder A right to have sexual needs met irrespective of needs & rights of others Sexual abuse justified and acceptable if alternatives not available Entrenched Cognitive Distortions which make offenders vulnerable to sexual offending and to justify it Positive emotional state when abusing a child because of the pleasure experienced and meeting needs for self-gratification in personally acceptable manner Multiple dysfunctional mechanisms Early sexualisation Impaired relationship and attachment style Multiple maladaptive development responses Deviant sexual fantasy Approach goal of sexual gratification linked with others e.g. sense of control High self esteem since interests are legitimate and healthy Children seen as legitimate sexual partners Intimacy deficits Inappropriate emotional regulation Multitude of offence related behaviours The pure paedophile

30 PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

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32 Mary Leyland, Clark Baim & David Middleton Risk Matrix 2000 High / Medium / Low) Very High Psychometric (Deviance) Assessment Refer to i-SOTP Psychometrics suggest multiple dysfunctional pathway Low Deviance Refer to one of the existing accredited sex offender programmes High Deviance Psychometrics suggest intimacy deficits pathway Psychometrics suggest emotional dysregulation pathway Core programme plus discretionary exercises on relationships and self management. Distorted sexual script pathway Anti-social cognitions pathway Psychometrics suggest no clear pathway Core programme plus discretionary exercises on relationships and self management Core programme plus discretionary exercises on victim awareness, relationships and self management Review treatment needs after completion of functional analysis and module 2 of i-SOTP

33 i-SOTP Model of Change Increase motivation, decrease denial and identify and reduce discrepancy between perceived pro-social values and behaviour (addressing distorted attitudes) Challenge offence supportive attitudes and behaviours (addressing distorted attitudes) Build an empathic response to identifying that children depicted in the indecent images are real victims of child abuse; (addressing distorted attitudes and socio-affective functioning ) Reduce use of sex as a coping strategy and emotional avoidance, replacing it with effective problem solving strategies (addressing socio-affective functioning and self management) Develop adequate relationship, intimacy and coping skills; improve self esteem and internal locus of control; (Social Adequacy factors and self-management) Develop realistic relapse prevention strategies and new pro-social lifestyle goals (addressing self-management and socio-affective functioning) PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

34 Treatment Targets Module 1: - Promoting motivation and forming a therapeutic alliance Module 2: - What needs did offending meet Module 3: - Victim Awareness and Taking Responsibility Module 4: - Emotional Self regulation and Relationship skills Module 5: - Community, Collecting and Compulsivity Module 6: - Relapse Prevention and New Life Goals PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

35 Assessing Change All sex offender treatment programmes are studied with respect to their clinical impact. Changes in scores on psychometric tests and interviews are examined for every offender. The IBAQ will continue to be developed for use as a risk assessment measure specific to this offender group. Psychometric change will be assessed by taking pre and post treatment measures on scales related to the programmes goals. NPD has an existing programme of evaluation for all SOTP programmes with relevant comparison data. Full information is maintained on all offenders undergoing the programme and longitudinal follow up report of effect on recidivism will be prepared. PPANI - Internet Offending 2013

36 Questions? PPANI - Internet Offending 2013


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