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Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India Wednesday, April 19 th (1:30-2:45pm) 13 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation.

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Presentation on theme: "Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India Wednesday, April 19 th (1:30-2:45pm) 13 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India Wednesday, April 19 th (1:30-2:45pm) 13 th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation

2 Indias Population: An Overview Anuradha Chagti Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India 13th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation

3 INDIAS POPULATION: AN OVERVIEW ANURADHA CHAGTI

4 The Teeming Millions 1027 Million on 1 st March Million on 1 st March Population multiplied by 5 times in the last century. Population multiplied by 5 times in the last century. Second most populous country in the world. Second most populous country in the world. Poised to cross Chinas population by Poised to cross Chinas population by 2045.

5 History of Population Growth Although the birth rate in India has been falling since the 1960s, it was only during that it fell significantly faster than the death rate - so bringing about a clear reduction Although the birth rate in India has been falling since the 1960s, it was only during that it fell significantly faster than the death rate - so bringing about a clear reduction

6 India is now entering the second phase of the demographic transition. India is now entering the second phase of the demographic transition.

7 Population Characteristics The decadal growth rate of Indias population was 21.3% in the last decade. Great variation among the states with Bihar recording the highest decadal growth rate of 28.4% and Kerala the lowest at 9.4%. The decadal growth rate of Indias population was 21.3% in the last decade. Great variation among the states with Bihar recording the highest decadal growth rate of 28.4% and Kerala the lowest at 9.4%. Uttar Pradesh continues to be the most populace state with a population of 166 million. Uttar Pradesh continues to be the most populace state with a population of 166 million. The density of India is 324 persons per square. West Bengal has the highest density (904) followed by Bihar (880) The density of India is 324 persons per square. West Bengal has the highest density (904) followed by Bihar (880)

8 Population Characteristics (cont) Sex ratio is 933. Kerala highest sex ratio (1058) and Haryana the lowest (861) Sex ratio is 933. Kerala highest sex ratio (1058) and Haryana the lowest (861) The child sex ratio (0-6 age group) 927 in The sharpest decline has been in the richer northern states. The child sex ratio (0-6 age group) 927 in The sharpest decline has been in the richer northern states. The literacy rate for population seven years and over was 65.4% in Highest in Kerala 90.9% and the lowest Bihar 47.5%. The literacy rate for population seven years and over was 65.4% in Highest in Kerala 90.9% and the lowest Bihar 47.5%. For the first time since independence an absolute decline in the number of illiterate persons: by 32 million during the last decade. For the first time since independence an absolute decline in the number of illiterate persons: by 32 million during the last decade.

9 Is the Growth Sustainable? Questions are being raised about Indias ability to sustain such a large population especially in the realms of Health and education Health and education Food and water Food and water Environmental damage Environmental damage

10 Government Initiatives Pre 1990s Pre 1990s Dominated b demographic goals. Target oriented. Focused primarily on sterilization, largely obviating client choice and limiting availability to a narrow range of services onwards 1997 onwards Approach shifted to address health and family welfare. Focus on client choice, service quality, gender issues and underserved groups, including adolescents, post menopausal women and men

11 Challenges Expanding services Expanding services Informed Choices Informed Choices Access to quality care Access to quality care Training Training Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation Message development Message development

12 Future Projections Prof Swaminathan : TFR trends from for larger States, TFR of 2.1 for the country achievable only by Estimated population of 1,409 million in 2026 and stable level of 1,628 million by National Population Policy 2000 projections: If the TFR of 2.1 by 2010 then 1,330 million in 2026 and in 2046 reach a peak of 1,417 million. There is a 200-million difference almost as much as Indonesia's demographic size between the two levels of projected populations a clear indication of the need to take the task of population stabilization seriously

13 Policy implications (i) Decentralized Planning and Program Implementation (i) Decentralized Planning and Program Implementation (ii) Convergence of Service Delivery at Village Levels (ii) Convergence of Service Delivery at Village Levels (iii) Empowering Women for Improved Health and Nutrition (iii) Empowering Women for Improved Health and Nutrition (iv) Child Health and Survival (iv) Child Health and Survival (v) Meeting the Unmet Needs for Family Welfare Services (v) Meeting the Unmet Needs for Family Welfare Services (vi) Collaboration With and Commitments from Non- Government Organizations and the Private Sector (vi) Collaboration With and Commitments from Non- Government Organizations and the Private Sector

14 THANK YOU

15 The Evolution Of The Family Welfare Program In India Tapan Ray Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India 13th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation

16 Evolution of the family welfare program in India Tapan Ray

17 Evolution and Delivery of Family Welfare Programme in India Tyranny of Targets – The Fourth Plan ( ) Emergency excesses in the field of sterilizations (mid –70s) Voluntary sterilization camps re-started with the new technology of laparoscopic sterilization (1980s) 1992 – Eighth Five Year Plan – calls for review of targets 1994 – Changes in the approach to Family Planning service delivery since ICPD 1996 – Target Free Approach announced 1999 – Community Needs Assessment Approach (CNAA) 2000 – National Population Policy

18 Evolution of Maternal and Child health programmes in India YearMilestones 1952Family Planning Programme adopted by Govt. of India (GOI) 1961Dept. of Family Planning created in Ministry of Health 1971Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (MTP Act) Renaming of Family Planning to Family Welfare 1978Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) 1985Universal Immunization Programme (UIP)+ National Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) Programme 1992Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme (CSSM) 1996Target-free approach 1997Reproductive and Child Health Programme -1 (RCH-1) 2005Reproductive and Child Health Programme -2 (RCH-2)

19 Pressure for undergoing sterilization, undermining human rights Health repercussions of hastily done sterilization operations in makeshift camps– infections, complications, failure rates, sometimes death Inadequate attention to safety-inadequate screening and follow-up Health services do not have provisions to deal with womens genuine health problems Poor quality of curative services Adverse Effects of a Population Control Programme

20 International Conference on Population and Development Cairo 1994 Adoption of the Programme of Action on population and development for the next 20 years New strategy emphasized the linkages between population and development Focus on meeting the needs of individual women and men rather than on achieving demographic targets Empowering women and providing them with more choices through expanded access to education and health services promoting skill development and employment Importance of equity in gender relations Enhance access to appropriate information and services

21 Attaining the Millennium Development Goals

22 Infant Mortality in India Infant mortality rate (0-1 year) per 1,000 live births (UNICEF estimates) World 55 Developed Regions………………………6

23 Source: WHO

24 Child Mortality in India Children under five mortality rate per 1,000 live births (UNICEF estimates) World 80 Developed Regions………………………7

25 Maternal Mortality in India Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births (WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA) World 400 Developed Regions…………………14

26 MDGs and the Tenth Plan Targets Goal 4 : Reduce child mortality Target 5: Reduce by two- thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Tenth Plan targets infant mortality rate (IMR) of 45 per thousand live births by 2007 and 28 by 2012

27 MDGs and the Tenth Plan Targets Goal 5 : Improve maternal health Target 6: Reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three-quarters between 1990 and 2015 Tenth Plan targets reduction in the maternal mortality ratio from 4 in to 2 per 1000 live births in 2007 and 1 by 2012

28 Indicator Tenth Plan Goals ( ) RCH II Goals ( ) NP Policy 2000 (by 2010) MD Goals (by 2015) Population Growth 16.2% ( ) -- Infant Mortality Rate 45/100035/100030/100028/1000 Under 5 Mortality Rate ---Reduce by 2/3rds from 1990 levels Maternal Mortality Ratio 200/100,000150/100,000100/100, 000 Reduce by 3/4th from 1990 levels Total Fertility Rate Couple Protection Rate 65% Meet 100% needs -

29 Key Facts Decline in IMR but maternal mortality high Inter- and intra- state variations in levels and in rates of change (Kerala 14 Orissa 96) Clustering of deaths in a few states Gender disparity in infant mortality Maternal education and female literacy Strong inverse association with immunization coverage Ante-, neo-, and post-natal care improvements will help reduce IMR The MDGs CAN be attained

30 Goals of NRHM Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) Universal access to public health services such as Womens health, child health, water, sanitation & hygiene, immunization, and Nutrition. Prevention and control of communicable and non- communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases Access to integrated comprehensive primary healthcare Population stabilization, gender and demographic balance. Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH Promotion of healthy life styles

31 What are the problems? Basic housekeeping is lacking in this sector; Efficiency – converting interventions to outcomes is poor; Data systems are inadequate and needs to be strengthened in numerous dimensions – including coverage and quality; Proper alignment of incentives.

32 How can this be done? Improve social service delivery. This is difficult since: It is more difficult to standardize quality across services than products, as there is people to people interaction; Quality of service can be intangible; Intimate contact between service provider and service user Some of these concerns could be addressed through improving monitoring and evaluation.

33 Universalizing Education In India Manmeet Mehta Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India 13th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation

34 Education Policy in India Universalizing Elementary Education Symposium on Development and Social Transformation Manmeet Mehta Spring 2006

35 Scope Of The Presentation Background Education for All – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan Goals SSA : A Critical Examination –Design –Financing –Implementation Progress so far ( January 2006) Recommendations

36 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan: Highlights Sector-wide, Umbrella Program Decentralized planning and implementation – Mission Mode Context- specific interventions Partners – DFID, UNICEF, World Bank,EC Elementary Education : 68% share of total education expenditure in the Tenth Plan States Commitment –Maintained at pre SSA 2000 levels –75:25 from –50:50 from 2007 onwards

37 Background Multipartisan rhetoric World Education Forum, 2000 From DPEP to SSA –Access –Equity –Quality Policy shift –National Level, Sector Wide Program –Legislative Support –Political Will

38 SSA : Objectives Increasing access –Increasing Enrolment –Improving transition rate –Improving infrastructure –Education Guarantee Scheme Improving equity –Girls –SC/ST –Disabilities Improving quality –Teacher training –Pupil Teacher Ratio –Context specific curriculum ( BRC & CRC) –Improvement in student performance

39 Flow of Funds Ministry of HRD State Govt. Treasury State Implementation Society District Central Government

40 SSA Framework: A Critical Glimpse Multiplicity of implementation agencies at the district level No fixed criterion for release of Finances from the Center –6 States (Sep 2005) lagged behind scheduled disbursements Staffing and training Inter-state variations in performance Is it really innovative enough? –Infrastructure design For e.g. Classroom design

41 Financial Framework Education Cess of 2% on Personal Income Investment by World Bank, DFID and EC No fixed criterion for release of funds by Center Sep 2005-State expenditure represented only 25% of the total allocation. States Financial Commitment increases on a progressive basis –Do they have the resources? Avoiding fund constraints

42 Implementation Multiplicity of Implementation Agencies at the District Level Decentralized Planning –Training for BRC and CRC staff critical –Incorporating feedback Low level of awareness of procurement procedures State Absorptive capacity Transparency in operations Addressing innovation – infrastructure, teacher training

43 Progress so far – Jan 2006 Access –As on November 2005, only 9.6 million children of years are out of school. –As on March 2005, 187 million( out of 194 mn) children of 6-14 years are enrolled in schools, including alternative systems –Infrastructure being increased ( but below target level) New Schools operationalized (92%) Additional Classrooms ( 68%) Toilets (70%) Drinking Water facility (69%)

44 Equity –Share of girls in primary school enrolment is 47% and for Upper primary stage, it is 45% –Share of SC in total enrolment in primary is 21.3% and in upper primary, it is 19% –Share of ST in total enrolment is 10.3% in primary and 8.2% in upper primary stages. – Share of children with disabilities is 1.37% in primary and 0.96% in upper primary Progress so far – Jan 2006

45 Quality –Assessment and Evaluation for setting benchmarks for student performance in Grade 3,5,7 and 8 –Technical deficiency –27 % of teachers trained against sanctioned –Over 95% of BRC and CRC sanctioned becoming operational Progress so far – Jan 2006

46 Recommendations Rationalizing the implementation structure Training – BRC/CRC/ Teachers Accounting procedures strengthened –Hand book, Training, Internal audit mechanism Tools for monitoring quality interventions Social Mapping –Rajasthan : Child Tracking System Progress leveraged on quantity and expanded scope of coverage The critical parameter : Quality of Education and Schools

47 NGOs And Government: Collaboration At The Cutting Edge Chandan Sinha Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India 13th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation

48 NGOs and Government in India: Collaboration at the Cutting edge? by Chandan Sinha

49 Two Questions Is collaboration among GOs and NGOs at the district level in India necessary and desirable for effective service delivery? If so, how may it be achieved? Focus: India, District level, Service Delivery

50 State-NGO Relationships: Perspectives Competition – a zero sum game Principal-agent relationship Exchange - NGOs as contractors NGOs as para-statal organizations Dangers of legitimizing the status quo Changing viewpoint Consultative Contractual Collegiate

51 NGO-State relations in India Post-independence growth State as promoter Central Social Welfare Board Five Year Plans Rural Development, Social Welfare, Health, Environment

52 District Level Scenario Each ploughs a lonely furrow Mutual suspicion and distrust Sporadic project based interaction Avoidance or interference/encroachment

53 The Wages of Isolation … Vulnerable populations sans services Duplication of development investment Poor provision of certain types of services Expensive and inefficient service delivery Wastage of scarce resources

54 Is Collaboration Necessary? Or Desirable? To ensure coverage of vulnerable population To better utilize scarce resources To better employ each others strengths & nullify weaknesses To enhance efficiency & effectiveness of service delivery

55 Collaboration: What can Government Bring to it? A constructive policy framework Main source of NGO resources Replication, scaling up and mainstreaming of NGO innovations A critical role in developing capacity NGOs acquire legitimacy

56 Collaboration: What can NGOs Bring to it? Local knowledge Community development experience Experimentation & innovation Operational flexibility Induce institutional reforms Advocacy - issues of social change

57 Collaborative Relationships: A Typology Primary Secondary Supplementary Complementary Partnership

58 Role of the District Officer Establish Coordinating Committees at the district level Joint Action Committees re specific projects Develop standardized formats for agreement System of periodic meetings Maintaining databases

59 Role of State Government Issue policy guidelines for the establishment of formal mechanisms

60 Thank you!

61 Panel 4: Implementing Social Policy In India Wednesday, April 19th (1:30-2:45pm) Anuradha Chagti Indias Population: An Overview Tapan Ray The Evolution Of The Family Welfare Program In India Manmeet Mehta Chandan Sinha Universalizing Education In India NGOs And Government: Collaboration At The Cutting Edge 13th Symposium on Development and Social Transformation


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