2Chapter Objectives Be able to: Explain the difference between routine business activities and projects.Describe the five major phases of a project.Construct a Gantt chart and interpret the results.Construct a project network diagram and calculate the earliest and latest start and finish times for all activities.Identify the critical activities and paths in a network.Crash a project.
5Project Management Trends The faster pace of strategic changeNew product lines are introduced more often to fight off competitors.Information technology solutions become quickly out-of-date.Customer and supplier networks quickly change.The changing role of middle managementThe role has decreased due to more advanced information systems handling many of the tasks.Responsibilities given to middle managers have been pushed down to supervisors and employees.
7Project Phases Concept Phase Project definition Phase Broad definition and scopeBudget estimates within 30%Project definition PhaseTentative schedules and budgets, organization, key personnel and resource requirementsBudget estimates refined within 5% to 10%
8Project Phases Planning phase Performance phase Postcompletion phase Detailed plans, timing, budgets and resourcesMilestonesProject management tools and techniquesPerformance phaseExecution and controlPostcompletion phase“Wrap-up”Reassignment of project resources
9Project Management Tools Gantt charts – Graphical tools used to show expected start and end times for project activities and to track actual progress against these time targets.Network diagrams – Graphical tools that show the logical linkages between activities in a project.
10Gantt ChartsTable 14.2Activities can occur simultaneously and some have predecessors that must be completed beforehand.
11Gantt ChartsFigure 14.2Shows that the project should be completed by the end of Week 18 and when specific activities shouldstart and finish.
12Network DiagramsCritical-path method – A network-based technique in which there is a single time estimate for each activity.Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) – A network-based technique in which there are multiple time estimates for each activity.
13Constructing a Network Diagram Identify each unique activity in a project by a capital letter that corresponds only to that activity.Represent each activity in the project by a node that shows the estimate length. (Activity on node (AON) diagram.)If an activity has an immediate predecessor(s), show the relationship by connecting the two activities with an arrow.Determine the earliest start time (ES) and earliest finish time (EF) for each activity by performing a forward pass.Determine the latest finish time (LF) and latest starting time (LS) for each activity by doing a backward pass.Determine the critical activities and path(s) in the project.
14Network DiagramsCritical path – A network path that has the longest, or is tied for the longest, linked sequence of activities.Project duration – The duration of a project is equal to the duration of the critical path.Network path – A logically linked sequence of activities in a network diagram.Critical activities – Project activities for which the earliest start time and latest start time are equal.
15AON Example – Gina3000Use the following data to develop a network diagram:
16AON Example – Gina3000Network DiagramFigure 14.4
17AON Example – Gina3000 Identify the Paths: ACFGJ ACDEGJ ACDEHJ ACDEIJ BCFGJBCDEGJBCDEHJBCDEIJ
18AON Times and Slack Earliest Start Time (ES) Earliest Finish Time (EF) = Latest EF for all immediate predecessorsEarliest Finish Time (EF)= ES + activity’s durationLatest Start Time (LS)= LF – activity’s durationLatest Finish Time (LF)= Earliest LS for all immediate successorsSlack = amount of allowable delay in an activity= Equal to LS – ES or LF – EF for an activity
19AON Example – Gina 3000Table 14.3Calculate Earliest Start and Earliest Finish Times
20AON Example – Gina 3000 Calculate Latest Start and Latest Finish Times Table 14.4Calculate Latest Start and Latest Finish Times
21AON Example – Gina 3000 Identify the Critical Path(s) ACFGJ = 13 weeks ACDEGJ = 17 weeksACDEHJ = 17 weeksACDEIJ = 17 weeksBCFGJ = 14 weeksBCDEGJ = 18 weeksBCDEHJ = 18 weeksBCDEIJ = 18 weeksThe activities in these critical paths have no slack.The project should be completed in 18 weeks.
22Crashing a ProjectCrashing a Project – Shortening the overall duration of a project by reducing the time it takes to perform certain activities.List all network paths and their current lengths and mark all activities that can be crashed.Focus on the critical path or paths. Working one period at a time, choose the activity or activities that will shorten all critical paths at the least cost. The one rule is this: Never shorten an activity that is not on a critical path, regardless of the cost. Doing so will not shorten the project; it will only add costs.Recalculate the lengths of all paths and repeat step 2 until the target project completion is reached or until all options have been exhausted.
23Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Use the following data to develop a schedule to complete the project within 23 weeks:Table 14.5
24Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Network Diagram:Figure 14.6
25Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Calculate ES, EF, LS, and LF for each activityNote: Critical Activities have a Slack = 0* Critical ActivityTable 14.6
26Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Network Paths for the ProjectABEFGK – 25 weeksACDFGK – 24 weeksAHIJ – 19 weeks
27Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Choose the activity(s) that will shorten all critical path(s) at the least cost:ABEFGK – 25 weeksActivity B - shorten 1 week at a cost of $500
28Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Updated Network Paths for the ProjectABEFGK – 24 weeksACDFGK – 24 weeksAHIJ – 19 weeksCrashing cost: $500
29Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Choose the activity(s) that will shorten all critical path(s) at the least cost:ABEFGK – 24 weeksACDFGK – 24 weeksActivity G - shorten 1 week at a cost of $700
30Crashing Example 14.3 Courter Corporation Updated Network Paths for the ProjectABEFGK – 23 weeksACDFGK – 23 weeksAHIJ – 19 weeksCrashing Cost = $500 + $700 = $1200
31Project Management Resources Project Management SoftwareMicrosoft ProjectPMI (Project Management Institute)Sponsors education and certificationSponsors conferences, research, user groupsPublishes Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®)PMBOK®Part I: Various business processes for projectsPart II: Nine project management knowledge areas
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