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National Income Accounting:Important Identities

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Presentation on theme: "National Income Accounting:Important Identities"— Presentation transcript:

1 National Income Accounting:Important Identities

2 Measuring the Production, Income, and Spending of Nations

3 National Income Accounts:
Provide the formal structure for our macro-theory models Aggregate Demand….aggregate income..consumed or invested Aggregate Supply….Total output..paid as wages, interest and dividends In equilibrium….Aggregate Demand=Aggregate Supply (growth) Inputs=Outputs Real output price level Broad magnitudes to characterize the economy

4 Basic Measures: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the value of final goods and services produced in the country within a given period Notable terms final goods Intermediate goods Value Added Past output vs. current outputs Measure of welfare Use of resources to avoid bads such as crime Improvement in the quality in the country

5 Factors of production….labor, capital, land
GDP= sum of payments to labor, capital, land and profits ˸Gross National Product (GNP) GDP+receipts from abroad made as factor payments to domestically owned factors of production.

6 Net Domestic Product GPP minus depreciation Depreciation is usually 11% NDP=89% of GDP National Income NDP-Indirect taxes that Business pay Indirect taxes that Business pay nearly 10% NI is nearly 90% of NDP

7 PI is the total income received – whether it is earned or unearned – by the households of the economy before the payment of personal taxes. It is found by adding transfer payments to and subtracting social security contributions ,corporate income taxes and undistributed corporate profits from the NI. DI is the total income available to households after the payment of personal taxes. It is equal to PI less personal taxes and also equal to personal consumption expenditures plus personal saving.

8 GDP in 2003 $million United States Japan Germany United Kingdom France Itlay China Spain Canada Mexico 10,881,609 4,326,444 2,400,655 1,794,858 1,747,973 1,465,895 1,409,852 836,100 834,390 626,080

9 GDP: An important and versatile concept We will see that GDP measures § total income § total expenditure § total output § the sum of value-added at all stages in the production of final goods

10 How to measure GDP? There are three approaches to the measurement of GDP: spending, income, and production.

11 Spending Approach The spending approach divides GDP into four areas:
households (consumption) (C) businesses (investment) (I) government (G) and foreigners (net exports) (X-IM).

12 Investment (I) def1: spending on [the factor of production] capital. def2: spending on goods bought for future use. Includes: § business fixed investment spending on plant and equipment that firms will use to produce other goods & services § residential fixed investment spending on housing units by consumers and landlords § inventory investment the change in the value of all firms’ inventories

13 Investment vs. Capital § Capital is one of the factors of production. At any given moment, the economy has a certain overall stock of capital. § Investment is spending on new capital. Example (assumes no depreciation): § 1/1/2002: economy has $500b worth of capital § during 2002: investment = $37b § 1/1/2003: economy will have $537b worth of capital

14 Stocks vs. Flows Flow Stock More examples: stock flow a person’s wealth a person’s saving # of people with # of new college college degrees graduates the govt. debt the govt. budget deficit

15 A question for you: Suppose a firm § produces $10 million worth of final goods § but only sells $9 million worth. Does this violate the expenditure = output identity?

16 Why output = expenditure
§ Unsold output goes into inventory, and is counted as “inventory investment”… . ….whether the inventory buildup was intentional or not. § In effect, we are assuming that firms purchase their unsold output.

17 The income approach The income approach divides GDP according to who receives the income from the spending flow. In addition to aggregate income, national income and personal income are also used as measures of income.


19 The income approach The Income Components Include: Wages and salaries
Corporate profits Proprietors income (the profits of partnerships and soley owned businesses, like a family restaurant) Farm income Rent Interest Sales taxes Depreciation (the amount of capital that has worn out during the year)

20 Interest (only the interest payments made by business firms
are included and the interest payments made by government are excluded). Corporate profits which are subdivided into Corporate income taxes Dividends Undistributed corporate profits

21 Three additions are made to the income side to balance it with expenditures.
1.Indirect business taxes are added because they are initially income that later gets paid to government. 2.Depreciation or the consumption of fixed capital is added because it is initially income to businesses that later gets deducted in calculating profits. 3.Net foreign factor income is added because it reflects income from all domestic output regardless of the foreign or domestic ownership of domestic resources.

22 The production approach
The production approach looks at GDP from the standpoint of value added by each input in the production process. The three approaches--spending, income, and production– (should) result in equivalent values for GDP.


24 Below is a list of domestic output and national income figures for a given year. All figures are in billions. Determine the major national income measures by both the expenditures and income methods. Personal consumption expenditures $245 Net foreign factor income earned in the U.S. 0004 Transfer payments 0012 Rents 0014 Consumption of fixed capital (depreciation) 0027 Social security contributions 0020 Interest 0013 Proprietors’ income 0033 Net exports 0011 Dividends 0016 Compensation of employees 0223 Indirect business taxes 0018 Undistributed corporate profits 0021 Personal taxes 0026 Corporate income taxes 0019 Corporate profits 0056 Government purchases 0072 Net private domestic investment Personal saving

25 Simple Economy…..No govt…no foreign trade
C=consumption I=investment S=saving Y= Income Output produced=output sold Y= C+I………….(1) I=S Y=C+S…………(2)

26 Introducing govt. in the above identity
G= govt. purchases of goods and services TA=all taxes TR=transfers to private sector (including interest) NX=net exports (exports-imports) YD=disposable income Y=C+I+G+NX……….(3) YD=Y+TR-TA………..(4) YD= C+S………………(5) C+S=Y+TR-TA

27 T - G: the Government's Budgetary Balance;
LEAKAGES (Withdrawals (W) :  (T + S + IM) out of the system must equal INJECTIONS (J):  (G + I + X) for the circular flow to balance (be in EQUILIBRIUM). Withdrawals [ T + S + IM] = Injections [G + I + X] can be broken down to three important balances in the economy: T - G:  the Government's Budgetary Balance; S - I:  the Private Sector's Saving/Investment Balance; IM - X:  the Country's Trade Balance (current account of Balance of Payments)

28 C=YD-S=Y+TR-TA-S……………………..(6)
Consumption is disposable income less saving Or consumption is equal to income plus transfers less taxes and saving Using RHS of (6) in (3): Y=C+I+G+NX……….(3) Y= (Y+TR-TA-S)+ I+G+NX S-I=(TR-TA+G)+NX…………………………(7) Govt. budget deficit,I.e., total govt. expenditure consisting of govt. Purchases of goods and services(G) plus govt. transfer payments (TR) Minus amount of taxes (TA) received by govt. equals excess of private saving over investment and net exports

29 The budget deficit, trade, saving and investment(in Rs. Billion)
Saving (S)…………… Investment(I)………… Budget Deficit(BD)… Net Exports (NX)……

30 Exercises Q.1 What would happen to GDP if the govt. hired unemployed Workers, who had been receiving amount $TR in unemployment Benefits, as govt. employees and now paid them $TR to do nothing? Explain. Q.2In the national income accounts, what is the difference between: a)A firm’s buying an auto for an executive and the firm’s paying the Executive additional income to buy the automobile herself? b)Your hiring your spouse (who takes care of the house) rather than having him or her do the work without pay? c)Your deciding to buy an Indian car rather than a German car?

31 3. The following is information from the national income accounts for a hypothetical country:
GDP $6, 000 Gross investment Net investment Consumption , 000 Government purchases of goods and services 1, 100 Government budget surplus What is: a. NDP? d. Disposable personal income? b. Next exports? e. Personal saving? c. Government taxes minus transfers?

32 GDP and GDP deflator § We would like to convert different goods quantities and prices into one single quantity of composite good and one general price level. How? § We use the concepts of nominal GDP, real GDP and GDP deflator to achieve such aggregation.

33 Real vs. Nominal GDP § GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced domestically. § Nominal GDP measures these values using current prices . § Real GDP measure these values using the prices of a base year.

34 Real and Nominal GDP 2001 Nominal GDP 2006 Nominal GDP 2006 Real GDP
Bread (ton) 1 at Rs.1 thousand … Rs. 1thousand 2 at Rs.2 thousand .. Rs. 4 thousand 2 at Rs. 1 thousand…………Rs.2 thousand Milk (thousand Litres) 1 at Rs 0.5 thousand………....Rs. 0.5 thousand 3 at Rs.0.75 thousand…………..Rs thousand 3 at Rs.0.50 thousand…………..Rs.1.50 thousand Total GDP Rs. 1.5 thousand Rs thousand Rs thousand

35 Real GDP and living standard
Changes in nominal GDP can be due to: § changes in prices § changes in quantities of output produced Changes in real GDP can only be due to changes in quantities, because real GDP is constructed using constant base-year prices. Therefore, changes in real GDP measure changes in living standard.

36 GDP Deflator While real GDP captures living standard, cost of living is measured by general price level. One measure of the general price level is the GDP Deflator, defined as GDP deflator = 100 * Nominal GDP /Real GDP

37 Measuring the Cost of Living
§ Inflation refers to a situation in which the economy’s overall price level is rising. § The inflation rate is the percentage change in the price level from the previous period.

38 Exercise: The following table shows nominal GDP and an appropriate price index for a group of selected years. Compute real GDP. Indicate in each calculation whether you are inflating or deflating the nominal GDP data Nominal GDP billions Price index (1992=100) Real GDP billions 1959 $ 507.2 23.0 $______ 1964 663.0 24.6 1967 833.6 26.6 1973 1382.6 35.4 1988 5049.6 86.1 1995 7265.4 107.8

39 CPI vs. GDP deflator prices of capital goods • included in GDP deflator (if produced domestically) • excluded from CPI prices of imported consumer goods • included in CPI • excluded from GDP deflator the basket of goods • CPI: fixed • GDP deflator: changes every year

40 International Comparisons of GDP
In any attempt to compare GDP between countries, some account must be taken of differences in prices. Adjustment for GDP based on exchange rates makes some improvement in the comparison of GDP figures. However, if we wish to determine the value of GDP in another country, some information on the price differences of goods is needed.

41 Purchasing power parity exchange rates
attempt to adjust exchange rates for differences in the prices of goods across borders through the use of a ratio of price indexes. The exchange rate is adjusted to reflect this ratio

42 Once this adjustment is made, international rankings of countries
based on GDP or per capita GDP tend to fluctuate as exchange rates vary, while the corresponding prices do not. Despite their variability due to exchange rate fluctuations, purchasing power parity exchange rates provide a better basis for international comparisons than an adjustment based solely on exchange rates.

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