2National-Income Accounting National-income accounting refers to the measurement of aggregate economic activity, particularly national income and its components.
3Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total market value of final goods and services produced within a nation’s borders in a given time period. (Usually a year)
4Gross Domestic Product Total Market Value means the dollar value of every one of the good or service produced during the period of time.Final goods and service means that production is only counted in the final stage. This is to keep things such as a car’s engine from being counted twice.
5GDP Versus GNPGross National Product (GNP) refers to output produced by American-owned factors regardless of location.GDP refers to output produced within America’s borders.
6GDP Versus GNPGDP is geographically focused, including all output produced within a nation’s borders regardless of whose factors of production are used to produce it.Japanese companies producing in America count, but not American companies abroad.
7GDP per CapitaGDP per capita is total GDP divided by total population–average GDP.GDP per capita is commonly used as a measure of a country’s standard of living.However, it is not always an accurate measure.
8Exceptions from the GDP There are three major exceptions when creating GDP.Non-Market ActivitiesUnreported IncomesIntermediate Goods
9Non-Market Activities GDP measures exclude most goods and services produced that are not sold in the market.A homemaker who cleans, washes, gardens, shops and cooks produces goods of value.Because they are not exchanged in the market they are not included in GDP.
10Unreported IncomeThe GDP statistics fail to capture market activities that are not reported to tax or census authorities.The underground economy is motivated by tax avoidance or to conceal illegal activities.
11Intermediate GoodsIntermediate goods are goods or services purchased for use as input in the production of final goods or services.For example, the engine or chassis of a car are not counted, so as to keep them from being counted twice.
12Value AddedValue added is the increase in the market value of a product that takes place at each stage of the production process.
14Two Ways to Calculate GDP Compute the value of the final output.Count only the value added at each stage of production.
15Real Versus Nominal GDP Nominal GDP is the value of final output produced in a given period, measured in the prices of that period.Real GDP is the value of final output produced in a given period, adjusted for changing prices.
16Computing Real GDPThe base period is the time period used for comparative analysis.From this base year, we find the GDP deflator for other years.The GDP deflator is a measure of price changes over time.
17Computing Real GDPThe general formula for computing real GDP is:
18Changes in GDP: Nominal Versus Real 6000700050004000300080009000$10000198019851990199619952000GDP (billions of dollars per year)Nominal GDP
19Net Domestic ProductChanges in real GDP tell us how much the economy’s output is growing.Growth is at the expense of future output unless factors of production are replaced.
20Net Domestic ProductDepreciation is the consumption of capital in the production process — the wearing out of plant and equipment.
21NDP = GDP – depreciation Net Domestic ProductNet domestic product is the amount of output we could consume without reducing our stock of capital.NDP = GDP – depreciation
22Net Domestic ProductInvestment is spending on (production of) new plant, equipment, and structures (capital) in a given time period, plus changes in business inventories.The distinction between GDP and NDP is mirrored in the difference between gross investment and net investment.
23Net Domestic ProductGross investment is total investment expenditure in a given time period.Net investment is gross investment less depreciation.
24Net Domestic ProductThe stock of capital — the total collection of plant and equipment — will not grow unless gross investment exceeds depreciation.
25The Uses of OutputThe GDP accounts also tell us what mix of output has been selected, that is, society’s answer to the core issue of WHAT to produce.
26The Uses of OutputThe major uses of total output conform to the four sets of market participants: consumers, business firms, government, and foreigners.
27ConsumptionGoods and services used by households are called consumption goods.Consumer spending claims nearly two-thirds of our annual output.
28InvestmentInvestment goods are the plant, machinery, and equipment that we produce.Also includes net inventory changes and new residential construction.
29Government SpendingResources purchased by the government sector are unavailable for consumption or investment purposes.
30Net Exports Exports are goods and services sold to foreign buyers. Imports are goods and services purchased from foreign sources.
31Net ExportsExports are added to GDP and imports are subtracted.Net Exports are the value of exports minus the value of imports.
32Computing GDPThe value of GDP can be computed by adding up expenditures of market participants:GDP = C + I + G + (X – IM)Where:C = Consumption expenditure X = exportsI = investment expenditure IM = importsG = government expenditure
33Measures of Income GDP accounts have two sides. One side focuses on expenditure – the demand side.The other side focuses on income – the supply side.
34Output = Income Factor market Product market VALUE OF INCOME VALUE OF OUTPUTNet exportsConsumer spendingInvestment spendingWagesProfitsInterestRentGovernment spendingSales taxesDepreciationFactor marketProduct market
35National IncomeBy charting the flow of income through the economy, we see FOR WHOM the output is produced.
36NDP = GDP – depreciation Depreciation charges reduce GDP to the level of NDP (Net Domestic Product) before any income is available to current factors of production.NDP = GDP – depreciation
37Net Foreign Factor Income Wages, interest, and profits paid to foreigners are not part of U.S. income.They need to be subtracted from the income flow.
38Net Foreign Factor Income Incomes earned by U.S. citizens in other nations represents an inflow of income to U.S. households and are added.
39National IncomeOnce depreciation charges and indirect business taxes are subtracted from GDP and net foreign income is added, we have national income.
40NI = NDP – indirect business taxes + net foreign factor income National IncomeNational income (NI) is total income earned by current factors of production.NI = NDP – indirect business taxes + net foreign factor income
41+ (transfer payments + net interest) Personal IncomePersonal income (PI) is the income received by households before payment of personal taxes.Personal income = National income – (corporate taxes + retained earnings + Social Security taxes)+ (transfer payments + net interest)
42Disposable income = personal income – personal taxes Disposable income (DI) is the after-tax income of households.It is personal income less personal taxes.Disposable income = personal income – personal taxes
43Disposable incomeSaving is that part of disposable income not spent on current consumption –disposable income less consumption.
44Disposable income = Consumption + Saving All disposable income is either consumed or saved.Disposable income = Consumption + Saving
46Total income (GDP) ends up distributed the following way: To households, in the form of disposable income.To businesses, in the form of retained earnings and depreciation allowances.To government, in the form of taxes.