Presentation on theme: "7 Gas-Fired and Non- Gas-Fired Structures. 7 Knowledge Objectives (1 of 5) Identify the codes, standards, and guidelines to consult when building a permanent."— Presentation transcript:
7 Gas-Fired and Non- Gas-Fired Structures
7 Knowledge Objectives (1 of 5) Identify the codes, standards, and guidelines to consult when building a permanent live fire training structure. Discuss how procedures and due diligence are critical in ensuring safety in a permanent live fire training structure. Describe the characteristics of a gas-fired live fire training structure.
7 Knowledge Objectives (2 of 5) Discuss the policies that must be followed when working in a gas-fired live fire training structure. Describe the characteristics of a non-gas-fired live fire training structure. Discuss the policies that must be followed when working in a non-gas-fired live fire training structure.
7 Knowledge Objectives (3 of 5) Identify the general features in permanent live fire training structures that assist in providing realistic training evolutions. Identify the information that must be included in the preburn plan. Describe how to create the emergency plan and ensure that it is implemented correctly.
7 Knowledge Objectives (4 of 5) Describe how to ensure the safety of spectators, media, and visitors. Describe how to ensure the water supply is adequate for training evolutions. Describe how to ensure on-site facilities. Describe how to maintain permanent live fire training structures.
7 Knowledge Objectives (5 of 5) Describe how to prepare a gas-fired live fire training structure for a safe training evolution. Describe how to prepare a non-gas-fired live fire training structure for a safe training evolution. Describe how to ensure a safe ignition and burn with a gas-fired system. Describe how to ensure a safe ignition with a non-gas-fired system.
7 Skills Objectives Inspect and prepare a gas-fired live fire training structure. Inspect and prepare a non-gas-fired live fire training structure.
7 Introduction Two basic types of permanent live fire training burn buildings –Gas-fired –Non-gas-fired NFPA 1403, Standard on Live Fire Training Evolutions, covers the specific requirements for both types of structures.
7 Code Requirements NFPA 1402, Guide to Building Fire Service Training Centers, is the guideline to use when building a new facility. A standard is not law unless adopted by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) or governmental authority.
7 Making and Enforcing the Rules Facility manager –Ensures that concise procedures are in place Procedures include normal to emergency activities. Some facilities post the rules. Courtesy of the Loudon County Department of Fire, Rescue, & Emergency Management
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (1 of 11) Permanent live fire training structures: designed to withstand repeated fires without incurring damage –Gas-fired live fire training structures: permanent structures where burn sets are fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or propane –Non-gas-fired live fire training structures: permanent structures where fires are fueled by Class A materials
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (2 of 11) Structures made of steel, concrete, masonry construction Can be freestanding, part of a training tower, or mobile structure Built with extremely heat- resistive material, allowing for repetitive fires and extended use
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (3 of 11) Thermal shock: ceiling, walls, floor surfaces heat unevenly and expand; then rapidly, unevenly are cooled by hose streams. Newer facilities have insulation panels and replaceable, non- load-bearing walls.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (4 of 11) Gas-fired live fire training structures Fueled with LPG or propane gas Computer-controlled systems evaluate conditions and shut down if unsafe. Courtesy of Kidde Fire Trainers, Inc.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (5 of 11) Gas-fired live fire training structures (cont.) Able to simulate specific scenarios Dead man switch can shut fire down and initiate ventilation. Courtesy of Kidde Fire Trainers, Inc.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (6 of 11) Gas-fired live fire training policies Fuel and fire locations Heat ranges Types of scenarios Simultaneous training evolutions Staffing requirements Host personnel
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (7 of 11) Non-gas-fired live fire training structures Produce higher temperatures than gas-fired structures Less expensive to build than gas-fired Lack safety controls found in gas-fired Many instructors find them more realistic.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (8 of 11) Non-gas-fired live fire training policies –Fuels selected per NFPA 1403 and AHJ –Follow specific fuel load amount and staging policies. –Set maximum temperature levels.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (9 of 11) Non-gas-fired live fire training policies (cont.) –Locations and types of training evolutions –Concurrent training evolutions allowed by NFPA 1403 –Staffing requirements follow NFPA 1403.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (10 of 11) Temperature monitoring –Relying too much on temperature reading is dangerous. –Many factors influence danger levels. –Carefully monitor conditions.
7 Types of Live Fire Training Structures (11 of 11) Shipping containers –Used with Class A fuels or gas- fired systems –Thermal liners protect container from thermal shock. –Need to comply with NFPA 1403
7 Features of Live Fire Training Structures Some features include: –Car props –Enclosed interior stairs –Sound systems –Realistic layouts –Doors and windows –Attic areas –Ducted smoke distribution –Roof vent props
7 Preburn Plan (1 of 6) The preburn plan needs to include: –Specific objectives –Who will participate –Water supply –Apparatus –Rapid intervention crews/emergency procedures –Incident management staffing/team organization
7 Preburn Plan (2 of 6) The preburn plan needs to include (cont.): –Order of operations –List of the training evolutions –Assignments and rotation –Communications plan –Building plan –Site plan –Emergency medical plan –Areas for staging, operating, parking
7 Preburn Plan (3 of 6) The preburn plan needs to include (cont.): –Policy for use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) –Checklist to confirm with agencies notified that evolutions are to be conducted –Requirements for other agencies –Acceptable weather parameters –Demobilization plan –Policy/plan for spectators, media, visitors
7 Preburn Plan (4 of 6) Participants must walk through structure. Emergency plan requires rapid intervention crews to be in place. Building evacuation plan must be known by all. Spectators to be kept away from operations
7 Preburn Plan (5 of 6) Instructor-in-charge determines water flow needs. On-site facilities, such as restrooms and lights, are essential. Courtesy of Robert Hernandez, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue
7 Preburn Plan (6 of 6) Instructor-in-charge and safety officer check inspection records. NFPA 1403 requires engineer with live fire training structure experience and expertise. Structures are evaluated for safety. If structural damage is severe enough to affect safety of participants, live fire training is not permitted.
7 Preparation (1 of 8) Check proximity to other structures. Identify adjacent properties. Identify and designate parking areas. Identify fire-ground location for press and spectators.
7 Preparation (2 of 8) Preparation and inspection –Look for signs of lack of structural integrity. –Check doors and windows for easy operation. –Search structure for unauthorized persons, animals, objects. –Check stairs and railings. –Check roof vent. –Look for any debris. –Damage should be documented.
7 Preparation (3 of 8) Preparation and inspection (cont.) –If damage is significant, training not permitted –All devices checked and operated prior to evolution –Awareness of weather conditions –Sources of ignition or unidentified materials removed –Check burn set locations or gas-fired systems.
7 Preparation (4 of 8) Instructors run gas-fired props and systems with students to ensure correct operation. Instructors must: –Be familiar with fire room environment –Not place anything on gas-fired props –Watch for debris
7 Preparation (5 of 8) Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training structures includes: –Visual inspection of the structure –Adjacent properties identified and informed of date and time of training evolution –Streets or highways surveyed –Instructor-in-charge documents fuel loading. –Identify exact burn locations.
7 Preparation (6 of 8) Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training structures includes (cont.): –Excessive fuel load contributes to conditions of dangerous fire behavior. –Ensure primary and secondary exit paths do not conflict with expected fire spread. –Burn set placed in a corner of room –Burn set cannot be located in exit path.
7 Preparation (7 of 8) Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training structures includes (cont.): –No burn room used that does not have two separate means of egress –Hearths, fireboxes, steel drawer, large pan can be used.
7 Preparation (8 of 8) Inspection of non-gas-fired live fire training structures includes (cont.): –Use Class A materials only. –NFPA 1403 allows concurrent, multiple fires in permanent non-gas-fired live fire training structures.
7 Operations (1 of 3) Operations in permanent live fire training structures require less personnel; less labor- intensive than acquired structures. –Still need to follow considerations and perform a walk-through Instructors must be qualified by the AHJ. Ignition decisions made by instructor-in-charge and safety officer. –Follow Go/No Go sequence.
7 Operations (2 of 3) Gas-fired systems have automatic ignition systems. –Instructor must visually confirm burn area is clear of personnel. –Communication is critical.
7 Operations (3 of 3) Non-gas-fired systems –Setup of burn rooms and ignition process follow same procedures as acquired structures. –Nobody can operate inside the structure alone.
7 Overhaul Once evolutions complete: –Check for injuries. –Check for damage to PPE and SCBA. –Report any damage, deficiencies, and repairs needed. –Leave facility in a safe condition.
7 Summary (1 of 2) Use of permanent live fire training structures reduces chance of problems that occur in acquired structures. They are designed to withstand repeated fires without incurring damage. Gas-fired structures are fueled with liquefied petroleum gas or propane. Non-gas-fired structures produce higher temperatures than gas-fired structures.
7 Summary (2 of 2) Develop preburn plan. Fire structure must be properly maintained and structural integrity inspected once a year. Fire structure is inspected for hazards and prepared before training evolutions. Safety is crucial.