2What To Look For In The Chapter In parts of Africa, trade helped to support large states and empires.The peoples of Africa developed many different societies.The slave trade disrupted. traditional patterns of life in parts of Africa.European imperialism, helped by advanced technology & economic power, led to great changes in Africa.
3The Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa Crossed the Sahara Desert in 1324 on his way to the holy city of MeccaConverted to Islam and was fulfilling his duty to travel to Mecca3,000 Mile long journey by camel caravanHad incredible amounts of gold and slaves that he took with himRuler of the Mali Empire gave him the wealth and power to accomplish this
4The Gold & Salt TradeLong tradition of trading from the Middle East and North Africa to the Savanna Lands of West AfricaMust have knowledge to cross the Sahara DesertTraveled by navigating the stars at night to avoid the heat of the dayRisked their lives for profit and to spread limited trade goods (especially salt)Both North Africa and West Africa had important trade goods
5What do you notice about the map and what it shows us?
6Effects of Trade Routes West African lands needed salt and had gold to trade for itSalt and gold were major trade goods that earned a lot of moneyTrade allowed strong kingdoms to grow in West Africa (Ex. Mali)Rulers became rich and built armies to conquer neighboring lands and expandMade large cities the main point in empires
7Empire of GhanaDeveloped in the plains between the Niger and Senegal RiversGhana- means the “King of Gold”Founded by the Soninke People in 500 A.D.Governed the lands through princes and officials chosen by the emperorEmperor’s power rested with the gold trade he owned all the gold that was in the EmpireMajor city and trade site on the Trans-Saharan trade route
8Ghana’s Trade SystemPeople in Ghana were connected to other societies through trade goodsTraded primarily with the Berbers (they lived in the desert areas of North Africa)Berbers traded in- Salt, cloth, and horsesGhana traded in- Gold, precious stones, kola nutsEvery trade caravan had to pay a tax to the Kingdom of Ghana1076 Kingdom of Almoravids broke apart the Ghana Empire into smaller pieces
9Affluent Society in Ghana Wealthy and powerful city that showed the power of GhanaAli- Bakri said in 1065-“When the king gives an audience to his people, to listen to their complaints and to set them to rights, he sits in a pavilion around which stand ten pages holding shields and gold-mounted swords.”
10Empire of MaliCreated by a series of battles fought by the Mandingos to create the Empire of MaliMandingos- farmers that had lived under the rule of GhanaThey fought for and controlled areas that had gold and made their new empire from that foundationThe Empire of Mali was created due to the breakup of the Kingdom of GhanaTrading empires would come and go based on defeats and outside pressures
13Mansa Musa – Leader of Mali Ruled Mali from 1312 till he died in 1337Captured the salt mines at Taghaza, which increased his power and wealthMansa Musa adopted Islam as his religion (allowed his subjects to still worship their own gods)Islam had spread through the traders that come from the Middle EastBased his system of justice on the Koran (Islamic Holy book)
14Effects of Islam on the Kingdom of Mali Mansa Musa took a pilgrimage to MeccaIncreased contact with West Africa and the Middle EastAmbassadors from Mali went to Middle Eastern countriesIslamic scholars came to MaliAs- Sahili – architect of many Mosques
15Decline of the Mali Empire Successors of Mansa Musa were not as powerful or skillful as he wasPower struggles weakened the empire in the 1400’sTowns and cities broke apart from the empire and Mali became smaller and weakerIt existed as a smaller state for 200 more years before becoming absorbed by other empires
16Songhai Empire in West Africa Songhai empire grew and became powerful as the Mali Empire declinedPowerful city of Gao was the center of their empireSunni Ali in 1446 set out to strengthen the empire he fought to provide safety to the trade caravansFought for 28 years to create a stable and powerful empireFollowed by Askia Muhammad who converted to Islam and made Timbuktu a major religious education centerSonghai Empire picked up where the Mali Empire had stopped (Continuation of the same basic area)
20Decline of the Songhai Empire Fell in 1591 to an invading army from MoroccoMorocco invaded in order to attack Mali (they did not know Mali had fallen)Defeated the Songhai Empire insteadMorocco had guns and cannons which were better than bows and arrows of the SonghaiWith the defeat the Songhai Empire was no longer a power in West AfricaLook at the map on page 82. Please answer the questions on page 82 by utilizing the information in the map .
21Kingdom of BeninLocated further away from the coast of West Africa were kingdoms that existed in the Rain ForestLived closer to the equator and had those climate issues to deal withDeveloped/started in the delta region of the Niger RiverControlling the mouth of the river allowed them to control the tradeTrade was another major part of this empire
23Benin Culture (Heritage) Preserved their culture and history through oral traditionOral Tradition- stories that are told from generation to generation and not written downOba- means rulerEwuare- famous Oba who captured many people and lands and made them pay tribute to himSet up a central government to run his empire and is credited with starting the Empire of Benin
24Accomplishments of Benin City Benin City was the capital of the Kingdom of BeninMajor site for industry and craft workersHad large streets that actually covered the whole cityCraft workers Made-Woven goods, brass, wood and ivory objectsEventually learned how to work with Bronze
27Cities of East AfricaTrade with other people around the world allowed coastal East African cities to growTrading centers became City-States- large town with its own government and usually controls the surrounding countrysideTraders brought animal skins, gold and ivory from the interior and Arab traders carried them NorthSome traders used the Indian Ocean and the monsoon winds to carry goods to South Asia