Presentation on theme: "Heritage of Africa. What To Look For In The Chapter In parts of Africa, trade helped to support large states and empires. The peoples of Africa developed."— Presentation transcript:
Heritage of Africa
What To Look For In The Chapter In parts of Africa, trade helped to support large states and empires. The peoples of Africa developed many different societies. The slave trade disrupted. traditional patterns of life in parts of Africa. European imperialism, helped by advanced technology & economic power, led to great changes in Africa.
The Pilgrimage of Mansa Musa Crossed the Sahara Desert in 1324 on his way to the holy city of Mecca Converted to Islam and was fulfilling his duty to travel to Mecca 3,000 Mile long journey by camel caravan Had incredible amounts of gold and slaves that he took with him Ruler of the Mali Empire gave him the wealth and power to accomplish this
The Gold & Salt Trade Long tradition of trading from the Middle East and North Africa to the Savanna Lands of West Africa Must have knowledge to cross the Sahara Desert Traveled by navigating the stars at night to avoid the heat of the day Risked their lives for profit and to spread limited trade goods (especially salt) Both North Africa and West Africa had important trade goods
What do you notice about the map and what it shows us?
Effects of Trade Routes West African lands needed salt and had gold to trade for it Salt and gold were major trade goods that earned a lot of money Trade allowed strong kingdoms to grow in West Africa (Ex. Mali) Rulers became rich and built armies to conquer neighboring lands and expand Made large cities the main point in empires
Empire of Ghana Developed in the plains between the Niger and Senegal Rivers Ghana- means the King of Gold Founded by the Soninke People in 500 A.D. Governed the lands through princes and officials chosen by the emperor Emperors power rested with the gold trade he owned all the gold that was in the Empire Major city and trade site on the Trans-Saharan trade route
Ghanas Trade System People in Ghana were connected to other societies through trade goods Traded primarily with the Berbers (they lived in the desert areas of North Africa) Berbers traded in- Salt, cloth, and horses Ghana traded in- Gold, precious stones, kola nuts Every trade caravan had to pay a tax to the Kingdom of Ghana 1076 Kingdom of Almoravids broke apart the Ghana Empire into smaller pieces
Affluent Society in Ghana Wealthy and powerful city that showed the power of Ghana Ali- Bakri said in When the king gives an audience to his people, to listen to their complaints and to set them to rights, he sits in a pavilion around which stand ten pages holding shields and gold- mounted swords.
Empire of Mali Created by a series of battles fought by the Mandingos to create the Empire of Mali Mandingos- farmers that had lived under the rule of Ghana They fought for and controlled areas that had gold and made their new empire from that foundation The Empire of Mali was created due to the breakup of the Kingdom of Ghana Trading empires would come and go based on defeats and outside pressures
Why would Mali be important?
Mansa Musa – Leader of Mali Ruled Mali from 1312 till he died in 1337 Captured the salt mines at Taghaza, which increased his power and wealth Mansa Musa adopted Islam as his religion (allowed his subjects to still worship their own gods) Islam had spread through the traders that come from the Middle East Based his system of justice on the Koran (Islamic Holy book)
Effects of Islam on the Kingdom of Mali Mansa Musa took a pilgrimage to Mecca Increased contact with West Africa and the Middle East Ambassadors from Mali went to Middle Eastern countries Islamic scholars came to Mali As- Sahili – architect of many Mosques
Decline of the Mali Empire Successors of Mansa Musa were not as powerful or skillful as he was Power struggles weakened the empire in the 1400s Towns and cities broke apart from the empire and Mali became smaller and weaker It existed as a smaller state for 200 more years before becoming absorbed by other empires
Songhai Empire in West Africa Songhai empire grew and became powerful as the Mali Empire declined Powerful city of Gao was the center of their empire Sunni Ali in 1446 set out to strengthen the empire he fought to provide safety to the trade caravans – Fought for 28 years to create a stable and powerful empire Followed by Askia Muhammad who converted to Islam and made Timbuktu a major religious education center Songhai Empire picked up where the Mali Empire had stopped (Continuation of the same basic area)
Compare Songhai to the Mali Empire
Overhead view of Timbuktu. What would the problems and obstacles be for this city?
Decline of the Songhai Empire Fell in 1591 to an invading army from Morocco Morocco invaded in order to attack Mali (they did not know Mali had fallen) Defeated the Songhai Empire instead Morocco had guns and cannons which were better than bows and arrows of the Songhai With the defeat the Songhai Empire was no longer a power in West Africa Look at the map on page 82. Please answer the questions on page 82 by utilizing the information in the map.
Kingdom of Benin Located further away from the coast of West Africa were kingdoms that existed in the Rain Forest Lived closer to the equator and had those climate issues to deal with Developed/started in the delta region of the Niger River Controlling the mouth of the river allowed them to control the trade Trade was another major part of this empire
Benin Culture (Heritage) Preserved their culture and history through oral tradition – Oral Tradition- stories that are told from generation to generation and not written down Oba- means ruler Ewuare- famous Oba who captured many people and lands and made them pay tribute to him Set up a central government to run his empire and is credited with starting the Empire of Benin
Accomplishments of Benin City Benin City was the capital of the Kingdom of Benin Major site for industry and craft workers Had large streets that actually covered the whole city Craft workers Made- – Woven goods, brass, wood and ivory objects – Eventually learned how to work with Bronze
How would you describe these?
Cities of East Africa Trade with other people around the world allowed coastal East African cities to grow Trading centers became City-States- large town with its own government and usually controls the surrounding countryside Traders brought animal skins, gold and ivory from the interior and Arab traders carried them North Some traders used the Indian Ocean and the monsoon winds to carry goods to South Asia