Presentation on theme: "Bell Ringer How did Ghana control the trans-Saharan trade? Why were camels important? What is an oasis?"— Presentation transcript:
Bell Ringer How did Ghana control the trans-Saharan trade? Why were camels important? What is an oasis?
CH 8: Ghana- A Trading empire
Kingdom of Ghana Started before 500 CE, and lasted until about 1200 Located in a semi-arid land (receives rain, but not much) Modern Day: Mali & Mauritania
The first mention of the Empire of Ghana was from Arab Scholars, but it was a flourishing empire by that time. Ghana means war chief Ghana was an important empire as it was very important in terms of trade, and they controlled a large supply of gold.
Land of Gold Arab scholars described Ghana as a land of Gold. The King was the head of the military, which made him very powerful. The King taxed all gold that passed through the kingdom, and all gold found in the Empire had to be given to the king. The King used governors to help rule the Empire (he paid them, they obeyed)
Matrilineal Inheritance The royal inheritance was Matrilineal When the King died his Sisters son would inherit the throne.
Trade Ghana benefited from its geography. North Africa wanted to trade with West Africa. Traders had to cross through Ghana, which taxed them heavily on their goods. Control of the trans-Saharan trade made the King of Ghana extremely rich.
History of Trade Trade across the Sahara was difficult in history. However the introduction of the Camel & Islam made trade easier. Invading Muslims introduced Camels, which were great for the Desert. Ghana also defeated the invading Muslims, who controlled West Africa. Their desire to trade benefited Ghana.
The Journey Traders would use caravans, or travel in groups. Traders would wait until after the rainy season, when water and grass could be found along the trade route. Traders would go from Oasis to Oasis. The entire trip took about 2 months to complete.
Gold & Salt Of the many items traded Gold & Salt were the two most important. Gold has long been considered valuable throughout the world. Salt is valuable as a part of peoples diet and for food preservation.
Wangara: Gold A part of Africa known as Wangara had a large supply of gold they were willing to trade. Apparently no one knew where the gold was but the Wangara people. Stories state that miners captured by traders would rather die then reveal the location of the Gold. One story says when a miner was killed the Wangarian people stopped trading for 3 years to prove a point
Taghaza: Salt West Africans needed salt In Taghaza salt was located about 3 feet below the earth The only thing in Taghaza was salt, and without salt it would have never existed. Miners relied on Caravans to bring them food, if the caravans didnt show up the salt miners starved.
Taxes Ghana had a complex system of taxes for traders going through their empires. Traders were taxed going into and out of Ghana. Most traders didnt mind as the Army of Ghana secured the trade routes, and made traveling in their empire extremely safe.
Traders would also sell some of their goods at the market place in Kumbi (Ghana Capital) One of the biggest markets in Africa, also had a slave market. Wood, Silk, Cotton, Dates, Figs, Grain, Leather, Gold, Salt Gold dust was the main currency
Ghana Falls Ghana peaked in about 1000 CE Muslim Warriors would take control in 1076, and the King would regain control in 1087 West Africa would fall (making Ghana less important), & Ghana would deplete their resources a rival took over Kumbi, and Ghana ended Mali would become the next major empire in Africa after the fall of Ghana.
Class Work Take 5-8 Minutes Make Up 3 Multiple choice questions based on Ghana. Write out the full question and provide multiple answers A-D (obviously one of them should be a correct answer).