2 Tuesday, January 22ndTake out your ISN to page 83 and answer the question in Preview 13
3 Tuesday, January 22ndJournal #21 In your journal answer the following:You are a trader heading into West Africa in about The caravan carries many goods, but the most precious is salt. Salt is so valuable that people trade gold for it! The gold traders never meet you face to face, though. You wish you cold talk to them to find out where they get their gold. Why do you think the traders are so secretive?
4 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire In this chapter we will explore the kingdom of Ghana and learn about the role of trade in the rise of West African kingdomsRead 13.1 on page 145How do we know about the kingdom of Ghana? When did the kingdom of Ghana begin? How might Ghana have become a kingdom?
5 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire Look at the graphic organizer on page 145.What do you see?Only one of these people traveled, which one is it?What is the camel carrying?In what direction is the camel traveling?What is the man in the southern part of W. Africa holding?Who might the figure in the center be?
6 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire IntroductionEmpire lasted 500 CE – 1200sPresent day Mauritania and MaliSenegal and Niger RiversArab scholars – earliest writings – was already flourishing countryGhana – “warrior chief”
7 13.2 Ghana’s Government and Military Read 13.2 and complete the reading notes on page 84 of your ISN
8 13.2 Ghana’s Government and Military King and his GovernmentKing was head of armyLed religious worshipWealth through gold tradeConducted business in a courtGovernment officialsappointed by kingpaid from gold moneyMatrilineal bloodline (based on woman’s family)Son of king’s sister took over throne
9 13.2 Ghana’s Government and Military Ghana’s MilitaryRegular army, reserve soldiers, and elite soldiersWore headdressesWeapons: spears, daggers, clubs, bow and arrow200,000 warriors
10 TRADING GAMENotice there are 5 areas of the room: North Africa, Sahara Desert, Taghaza, Ghana, and Wangara2 students will be salt miners in Taghaza and 2 students will be Ghana officials in GhanaThe rest of you will be split into 2 groups: North African Traders and Wangaran gold miners – sit in your assigned areasNote: Wangara is a gold-rich region of south Ghana. Historically, the salt miners of Taghaza were slaves of Arab merchants – you will be referred to as salt miners in this activity
11 TRADING GAMESalt Miners – you keep 3 salt tokens. Write your names on the others and give them to the Taghaza salt miners – the tokens you have represent salt you will “mine” during the game. Tokens given to the traders represent salt they have already acquired in TaghazaNorth African traders – you get a gold tokenWangaran’s – you get a sheet of paper – place this on the floor in front of you
12 TRADING GAMEWe will not play a game to demonstrate how trading was conducted between N. African traders and Wangaran gold miners. The traders and miners will be competing in the game as individuals. The winners will be the N. African trader who ends the game with the most gold tokens and the Wangaran gold miner who ends the game with the most salt tokens
13 TRADING GAME – how to play Step 1 – N. African traders crawl across the Sahara Desert. When a trader reaches Ghana give one gold token to the Ghana official and then walk to Wangara to find a Wangaran gold miner with whom to trade. As a N. African trader approaches the Wangaran, the Wangaran turns his or her back.
14 TRADING GAME – how to play Step 2 – The N. African trader and the Wangaran gold minder practice making and accepting the first offer (this is a practice round – tokens will be returned afterwards).The N. African trader places one or more salt tokens on the paper behind the Wangaran. Then the N. African trader turns your back and clapsThe Wangaran turns around and examines the offer and places one or more gold tokens next to the salt and turns and claps.
15 TRADING GAME – how to play Step 2 Continued:The N. African takes the gold token(s), leaves the salt, claps and leavesThe Wangaran picks up the salt tokensYou MAY NOT talk during this
16 TRADING GAME – how to play Step 3 – Make a counteroffer If neither the N. African or the Wagaran gold miner is happy with the 1st offer they can make a counter offer.
17 TRADING GAME – COUNTEROFFER N. African trader – if you aren’t happy with the Wagaran’s 1st offer, leave the gold and saltWagaran, if the gold and salt are still there, you can add more gold tokens or leave the same # of tokensN. African trader – if you aren’t satisfied with the Wagaran’s counteroffer, take your salt, leave the gold and find another Wangaran with whom to trade
18 TRADING GAME – COUNTEROFFER N. African traders can return to Taghaza for more salt tokens if they run out. However, you must pay one gold token to Ghana for every 3 salt tokens you transport through Ghana, and you cannot redeem more tokens than you originally had.
19 TRADING GAME – getting more salt tokens After N. African traders have traded their 3 salt tokens they can get more by going to TaghazaYou may return to Wangara through Ghana, but you have to pay one gold token for every 3 salt tokens you move through Ghana. You cannot get more salt tokens than you can pay taxes on, and you cannot get more than you have available to you (with your names on) in Taghaza
20 TRADING GAME – TIME TO PLAY Now we have gone over the rules so let’s play the game for real.Taghaza salt miners – you will write a “receipt” for salt issued that traders must show to Ghana officials for tax purposes as they travel through Ghana so you can’t smuggle salt through Ghana
21 TRADING GAME – Winner, Winner Chicken Dinner! N. African traders – count your gold tokensWangaran gold miners – count your salt tokensGhana officials – count how many gold tokens you collected
22 TRADING GAME – DEBRIEF How did you feel during this activity? How were the students representing Ghana bale to get gold?Why were traders willing to pay this tax to Ghana?What problems did you encounter when you could not talk with the person with whom you wished to trade?Why might N. African traders and Wangaran gold miners have used a method of trading that involved silent communication?
23 13.3 Trade: The Source of Ghana’s Wealth What Did the tokens in the game represent? How were the hardships of crossing the Sahara shown?Read 13.3 and complete the notes on page 84 of ISN
24 13.3 Trade: The Source of Ghana’s Wealth Trade: Source of Ghana’s WealthLocated between two trade areas: North and Western AfricaLocation of Ghana allowed it to control and TAX the trade to make MONEY! History of Trans-Saharan TradeBCE earliest trade in AfricaTwo things that helped trade grow:Camel: caravan routes, no water needed for long timeSpread of Islam: brought goods during spread.
25 13.3 Trade: The Source of Ghana’s Wealth The Journey SouthTravel on trade routes was long and difficultNot many towns along wayFew that were there traders stopped at and rested
26 13.4 The Gold-Salt TradeHow do you think Ghana became wealthy? How was this shown in the game?Read 13.4 and answer the reading notes on page 85 of your ISN
27 13.4 The Gold-Salt Trade The Gold-Salt Trade Many items were traded, but gold and salt were the biggest twoWangara: Secret Source of GoldSouth of Ghana was Wangara, much gold there in secretTaghaza: A Village Built with SaltSalt was just as important as goldNeeded in part of dietSalt deposits or water methodTaghaza existed due to salt trade
28 Ghana’s system of Taxes 13.4 The Gold-Salt TradeGhana’s system of TaxesTraders paid taxes on all goods they had when they came AND leftTax money paid for armies to protect traders and the empire
29 13.5 The exchange of GoodsWhy do you think students were not allowed to talk to each other? What did the clap mean?Read 13.5 and answer the reading notes on page 85 of ISN
30 The Exchange of Goods 13.5 The exchange of Goods Kumbi was the main marketplace in GhanaGoods from all over the world were in KumbiSlave market as wellBarter was the form of moneySilent barter – different languages could trade and guarded secret of gold mines
31 13.6 The Decline of Ghana and The Rise of Mali Read 13.6 and complete the reading notes on page 86 of ISNMost of this lesson has focused on the benefits of trans-Saharan trade.What were some costs involved with this trade.Ghana's accessibility to outsiders also brought invaders.Ghana’s wealth stimulated the population growth that depleted the kingdom’s natural resources
32 13.6 The Decline of Ghana and The Rise of Mali Height (most success) of empire around C.E.In late 1000s, Almoravids (warriors) attacked Kumbi and took it over.Ghana began to lose natural resourcesLarge population consumed more than could be providedEmpire ended in 1203 when rival kingdom took overNew empire rose: MALI.Bigger than GhanaMade money also from the gold tradeIslam was the official religion