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Ghana: A West African Trading Empire

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1 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire

2 Tuesday, January 22nd Take out your ISN to page 83 and answer the question in Preview 13

3 Tuesday, January 22nd Journal #21 In your journal answer the following: You are a trader heading into West Africa in about The caravan carries many goods, but the most precious is salt. Salt is so valuable that people trade gold for it! The gold traders never meet you face to face, though. You wish you cold talk to them to find out where they get their gold. Why do you think the traders are so secretive?

4 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire
In this chapter we will explore the kingdom of Ghana and learn about the role of trade in the rise of West African kingdoms Read 13.1 on page 145 How do we know about the kingdom of Ghana? When did the kingdom of Ghana begin? How might Ghana have become a kingdom?

5 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire
Look at the graphic organizer on page 145. What do you see? Only one of these people traveled, which one is it? What is the camel carrying? In what direction is the camel traveling? What is the man in the southern part of W. Africa holding? Who might the figure in the center be?

6 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire
Introduction Empire lasted 500 CE – 1200s Present day Mauritania and Mali Senegal and Niger Rivers Arab scholars – earliest writings – was already flourishing country Ghana – “warrior chief”

7 13.2 Ghana’s Government and Military
Read 13.2 and complete the reading notes on page 84 of your ISN

8 13.2 Ghana’s Government and Military
King and his Government King was head of army Led religious worship Wealth through gold trade Conducted business in a court Government officials appointed by king paid from gold money Matrilineal bloodline (based on woman’s family) Son of king’s sister took over throne

9 13.2 Ghana’s Government and Military
Ghana’s Military Regular army, reserve soldiers, and elite soldiers Wore headdresses Weapons: spears, daggers, clubs, bow and arrow 200,000 warriors

10 TRADING GAME Notice there are 5 areas of the room: North Africa, Sahara Desert, Taghaza, Ghana, and Wangara 2 students will be salt miners in Taghaza and 2 students will be Ghana officials in Ghana The rest of you will be split into 2 groups: North African Traders and Wangaran gold miners – sit in your assigned areas Note: Wangara is a gold-rich region of south Ghana. Historically, the salt miners of Taghaza were slaves of Arab merchants – you will be referred to as salt miners in this activity

11 TRADING GAME Salt Miners – you keep 3 salt tokens. Write your names on the others and give them to the Taghaza salt miners – the tokens you have represent salt you will “mine” during the game. Tokens given to the traders represent salt they have already acquired in Taghaza North African traders – you get a gold token Wangaran’s – you get a sheet of paper – place this on the floor in front of you

12 TRADING GAME We will not play a game to demonstrate how trading was conducted between N. African traders and Wangaran gold miners. The traders and miners will be competing in the game as individuals. The winners will be the N. African trader who ends the game with the most gold tokens and the Wangaran gold miner who ends the game with the most salt tokens

13 TRADING GAME – how to play
Step 1 – N. African traders crawl across the Sahara Desert. When a trader reaches Ghana give one gold token to the Ghana official and then walk to Wangara to find a Wangaran gold miner with whom to trade. As a N. African trader approaches the Wangaran, the Wangaran turns his or her back.

14 TRADING GAME – how to play
Step 2 – The N. African trader and the Wangaran gold minder practice making and accepting the first offer (this is a practice round – tokens will be returned afterwards). The N. African trader places one or more salt tokens on the paper behind the Wangaran. Then the N. African trader turns your back and claps The Wangaran turns around and examines the offer and places one or more gold tokens next to the salt and turns and claps.

15 TRADING GAME – how to play
Step 2 Continued: The N. African takes the gold token(s), leaves the salt, claps and leaves The Wangaran picks up the salt tokens You MAY NOT talk during this

16 TRADING GAME – how to play
Step 3 – Make a counteroffer If neither the N. African or the Wagaran gold miner is happy with the 1st offer they can make a counter offer.

N. African trader – if you aren’t happy with the Wagaran’s 1st offer, leave the gold and salt Wagaran, if the gold and salt are still there, you can add more gold tokens or leave the same # of tokens N. African trader – if you aren’t satisfied with the Wagaran’s counteroffer, take your salt, leave the gold and find another Wangaran with whom to trade

N. African traders can return to Taghaza for more salt tokens if they run out. However, you must pay one gold token to Ghana for every 3 salt tokens you transport through Ghana, and you cannot redeem more tokens than you originally had.

19 TRADING GAME – getting more salt tokens
After N. African traders have traded their 3 salt tokens they can get more by going to Taghaza You may return to Wangara through Ghana, but you have to pay one gold token for every 3 salt tokens you move through Ghana. You cannot get more salt tokens than you can pay taxes on, and you cannot get more than you have available to you (with your names on) in Taghaza

Now we have gone over the rules so let’s play the game for real. Taghaza salt miners – you will write a “receipt” for salt issued that traders must show to Ghana officials for tax purposes as they travel through Ghana so you can’t smuggle salt through Ghana

21 TRADING GAME – Winner, Winner Chicken Dinner!
N. African traders – count your gold tokens Wangaran gold miners – count your salt tokens Ghana officials – count how many gold tokens you collected

22 TRADING GAME – DEBRIEF How did you feel during this activity?
How were the students representing Ghana bale to get gold? Why were traders willing to pay this tax to Ghana? What problems did you encounter when you could not talk with the person with whom you wished to trade? Why might N. African traders and Wangaran gold miners have used a method of trading that involved silent communication?

23 13.3 Trade: The Source of Ghana’s Wealth
What Did the tokens in the game represent? How were the hardships of crossing the Sahara shown? Read 13.3 and complete the notes on page 84 of ISN

24 13.3 Trade: The Source of Ghana’s Wealth
Trade: Source of Ghana’s Wealth Located between two trade areas: North and Western Africa Location of Ghana allowed it to control and TAX the trade to make MONEY!  History of Trans-Saharan Trade BCE earliest trade in Africa Two things that helped trade grow: Camel: caravan routes, no water needed for long time Spread of Islam: brought goods during spread.

25 13.3 Trade: The Source of Ghana’s Wealth
The Journey South Travel on trade routes was long and difficult Not many towns along way Few that were there traders stopped at and rested

26 13.4 The Gold-Salt Trade How do you think Ghana became wealthy? How was this shown in the game? Read 13.4 and answer the reading notes on page 85 of your ISN

27 13.4 The Gold-Salt Trade The Gold-Salt Trade
Many items were traded, but gold and salt were the biggest two Wangara: Secret Source of Gold South of Ghana was Wangara, much gold there in secret Taghaza: A Village Built with Salt Salt was just as important as gold Needed in part of diet Salt deposits or water method Taghaza existed due to salt trade

28 Ghana’s system of Taxes
13.4 The Gold-Salt Trade Ghana’s system of Taxes Traders paid taxes on all goods they had when they came AND left Tax money paid for armies to protect traders and the empire

29 13.5 The exchange of Goods Why do you think students were not allowed to talk to each other? What did the clap mean? Read 13.5 and answer the reading notes on page 85 of ISN

30 The Exchange of Goods 13.5 The exchange of Goods
Kumbi was the main marketplace in Ghana Goods from all over the world were in Kumbi Slave market as well Barter was the form of money Silent barter – different languages could trade and guarded secret of gold mines

31 13.6 The Decline of Ghana and The Rise of Mali
Read 13.6 and complete the reading notes on page 86 of ISN Most of this lesson has focused on the benefits of trans-Saharan trade. What were some costs involved with this trade. Ghana's accessibility to outsiders also brought invaders. Ghana’s wealth stimulated the population growth that depleted the kingdom’s natural resources

32 13.6 The Decline of Ghana and The Rise of Mali
Height (most success) of empire around C.E. In late 1000s, Almoravids (warriors) attacked Kumbi and took it over. Ghana began to lose natural resources Large population consumed more than could be provided Empire ended in 1203 when rival kingdom took over New empire rose: MALI. Bigger than Ghana Made money also from the gold trade Islam was the official religion

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