2The Big Idea: The rulers of Ghana built an empire by controlling the salt and gold trade.
3Main Idea 1: Ghana controlled trade and became wealthy.
4Ghana Controls TradeSometime after 300 the first farmers in Ghana, the Soninke (some of the earliest people in West Africa), were threatened by nomadic herders. The Soninke began to band together for protection, forming the beginnings of Ghana.They grew in strength, learning to work with iron. They used iron farm tools to produce more food, allowing the population to increase. They also made superior iron weapons.
5Ghana Controls TradeFor hundreds of years West Africans did not profit from the trade routes that crisscrossed the region because they were run by Berbers from North Africa.Ghana lay between the vast Sahara Desert and deep forests, a good position to trade in the region’s most valuable resources, gold and salt.Ghana was the first kingdom in West Africa to gain control of trade routes.
7Gold and SaltGoldGold came from the south, from mines near the Gulf of Guinea and along the Niger River.People wanted gold for its beauty.SaltSalt came from the Sahara in the north. People needed salt to survive.It could preserve food, and made bland food tasty.
11Trading Gold and SaltThe exchange of gold and salt sometimes followed a silent barter (process in which people exchange goods without ever contacting each other directly.)Helped ensure traders did business peacefullyKept exact location of gold mines a secret from salt traders
12Trading Gold and Salt As trade increased, Ghana’s rulers gained power. Their military strength grew as well.Began to take control of trade routesRulers of Ghana became wealthy.
13Trading Gold and SaltAdditional sources of wealth and trade included wheat, sheep, cattle, honey, leather, cloth, and tassels made from golden thread.As trade increased, Ghana’s capital, Koumbi Saleh became West Africa’s largest city and a great trading center.
15Main Idea 2: Through its control of trade, Ghana built an empire.
16By 800 Ghana was firmly in control of West Africa’s trade routes. Traders were protected by Ghana’s army.Ghana’s rulers made money by forcing traders to pay taxes. The people of Ghana also had to pay taxes, and conquered neighboring tribes had to pay tribute.
17Ghana’s mines produced huge amounts of gold, which was officially the property of the king. The rulers banned anyone else in Ghana from owning gold nuggets. Common people could own only gold dust.
18Expansion of the Empire Ghana’s kings used their wealth to build a powerful army and conquer many of their neighbors. Many conquered areas were trade centers, bringing more wealth.Travel and communication were difficult in their large empire, so they allowed conquered kings to retain much of their power.The empire of Ghana reached its peak under Tunka Manin.
19Main Idea 3: Attacking invaders, overgrazing, and the loss of trade caused Ghana’s decline.
20Invasion The Muslim Almoravids attacked Ghana in the 1060s. Destroyed the city of Koumbi SalehThey cut off trade routes and formed new partnerships with Muslim leaders.Without trade, Ghana could no longer support its empire.
24Internal RebellionIn about 1200 the people of one of the areas Ghana had conquered rose up in rebellion.Within a few years the rebels had taken over Ghana.Weakened, Ghana was defeated by one of its neighbors.